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S.S. Vocab review for Chapters 1 & 2

Terms

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Niccol'o Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Italian political philosopher and statesman; he wrote The Prince, which advised rulers to separate morals from politics. He insisted that a ruler do whatever is necessary to succeed and that the ends would justify the means.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) the agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in the Americas.
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia.
Conquistador
a Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain.
Viceroys
officials who ruled Spain's American empire.
Bartolome De Las Casas
(1474-1566) Spanish missionary and historian; he sought to protect Native Americans from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves.
Albrecht Durer
(1471-1528) German painter, engraver, and theoretician; he combined Italian Renaissance techniques of realism and perspective with elements unique to the northern Renaissance, such as the use of oils in his painting.
Jesuits
the Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism in the mid-1500s to the early 1600s.
Indulgences
pardons issued by the pope of the Roman Catholic Church that could reduce a soul's time in purgatory; from the 1100s to the 1500s, indulgences could be purchased, which led to corruption. Purgatory a place where souls must go to work off their sins.
Atahualpa
(c. 1502-1533) Last Inca king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Spanish conquistadors. He was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over.
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement in the 1500s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches.
Annulled
declared invalid based on church laws
Teresa of Avila
(1515-1582) Spanish Carmelite nun and one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church; she reformed the Carmelite order. Her fervor for the Catholic Church proved inspiring for many people during the Reformation period.
Christine De Pisan
(1364-c. 1430) French poet and author; her work The City of Women discusses the role of women in society. She championed the causes of equality and education for women.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast.
Lorenzo De Medici
(1449-1492) Florentine ruler; he supported some of the most talented Renaissance artists. He was known for his patronage and liberal mind.
Columbian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus.
Renaissance
"Rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.
John Calvin
(1509-1564) French Protestant theologian of the Reformation; he founded Calvinism, which was associated with the doctrine of predestination.
Capitalism
economic system in which most businesses are privately owned.
Hernan Cortes
(1485-1547) Spanish conquistador; from 1519 to 1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
Caravel
a sailing vessel that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind.
Olaudah Equiano
(c. 1750-1797) African American abolitionist; he was an enslaved African who was eventually freed, became a leader of the abolitionist movement, and wrote The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.
Michelangelo Buonarroti
(1475-1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which took him four years to paint. The ceiling shows sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible.
Subsidies
grants of money.
Moctezuma II
(1466-1520) Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortés and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Elizabeth 1
(1533-1603) Queen of England from 1558 to 1603; a skillful politician and diplomat, she reasserted Protestant supremacy in England.
Circumnavigate
to proceed completely around.
Henry Hudson
(died 1611) English navigator; he sailed for the Dutch East India Company and discovered the Hudson River in present-day New York.
Mercantilism
an economic system used from about the 1500s to the 1700s that held that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth.
Triangular Trade
trading network lasting from the 1600s to the 1800s that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
Charles Borromeo
(1538-1584) Archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584; he took steps to implement the reforms ordered by the Council of Trent.
Counter-Reformation
the Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism in the mid-1500s to the early 1600s.
Plantations
large farms that usually specialized in the growing of one type of crop for a profit.
Balance of Trade
the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time.
Johannes Gutenberg
(c. 1397-1468) German inventor and printer; he invented movable type. His first printed publication was a 1,282-page Bible.
Predestination
the belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would gain salvation.
Ferdinand Magellan
(c. 1480-1521) Portuguese navigator; his ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe, though he died on the journey.
Leonardo Da Vinci
(1452-1519) Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist; his interests and talents spanned numerous disciplines. He painted the Mona Lisa. The Last Supper shows a gathering of the disciples of Jesus the night before his crucifixion. The Mona Lisa tries to capture the complexity of the human spirit with its mysterious smile.
Theocracy
a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God's authority.
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) German monk whose protests against the Catholic Church in 1517 (the Ninety-Five Theses) led to calls for reform and to the movement known as the Reformation.
African Diaspora
the dispersal of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe due to the slave trade.
Secular
Having to do with worldly, as opposed to religious, matters.
Francisco Pizarro
(c. 1476-1541) Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530 to 1533, he conquered the Inca Empire.
Jan Van Eyck
(c. 1390-1441) Flemish painter; his paintings focused on landscapes and domestic life and fused the everyday with the religious.
Encomienda
Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the Native Americans Christianity.
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Sir Francis Drake
(c. 1540-1596) English admiral; he rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast. He ended up heading west to return to England, thus becoming the second man to circumnavigate the globe.
Desiderius Erasmus
(1466-1536) Dutch priest and humanist; he wrote on the need for a pure and simple Christian life. To his regret, his writings fanned the flames of discontent with the Roman Catholic Church.
Francis of Sales
(1567-1622) French Roman Catholic leader and preacher; he worked to win back the district of Savoy, in France, from Calvinism.
Ignatius of Loyola
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
Middle passage
the name for voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Vasco Da Gama
(c. 1469-1524) Portuguese navigator; in 1497-1499, he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) English statesman and author; he wrote Utopia, which describes an ideal society.
Baldassare Castiglione
(1479-1529) Italian diplomat and writer; he wrote The Courtier, one of the most important books of the Renaissance, in which he delineates the rules and correct behaviors for a courtier to adopt in order to win favor from a ruler. He taught gentlemen and gentlewomen how to be have properly. Speak of serious subjects as well as amusing ones, have a knowledge of Latin and Greek, be well acquainted with poetry and history, be able to write prose as well as poetry.
William Shakespeare
(1564-1616) English dramatist and poet; he is considered one of the greatest dramatists of all time and wrote such works as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Humanism
An intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on human potential and achievements.
Joint-Stock Companies
businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses.
Council of Trent
a meeting of church leaders in the 1500s whose purpose was to clearly define Catholic doctrines for the Catholic Reformation.

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