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AP US Vocab 1825-1865

Commonly used vocab on APUSH from 1825-1865


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Lincoln-Douglass Debates
Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery
Morrill Land Grant Act
Government gave land for public colleges
Underground Railroad
Chain of safe houses to help slaves run away to Canada
Webster-Ashbutron Treaty
Settled border dispute between Maine and New Brunswick - very popular treaty in US because they got more than half of the territory
Hinton Helper
Critic of Slavery in the South - published The Impending Crisis of the South - said slavery hurt the economic growth of non-slave holders and the growth of the Southern region
Specie Circular
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in specie
Worcester v Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller
Lecompton Constitution
pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected
Know Nothing
1850s - Nativist movement - against Irish Immigrants
The Liberator
Abolitionist Newspaper first published by William Lloyd Garrison
Bank War
Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States
Trent Affair
Union soldiers boarded British ship The Trent and removed Mason and Slidell - were interned in Boston and released by Lincoln
Dred Scott v Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Emancipation Proclamation
Executive order that ended slavery in the states in rebellion (confederate states)
Stephen Douglas
Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850
Popular Sovereignty
New states could vote on slavery
Free Soilers
People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories
Cult of Domesticity
Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain - women embodied perfect virtues in all senses
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons
American Anti-Slavery Society
Abolitionist Society founded by William Lloyd Garrison
Maine Laws
Passed in 1851 - first big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale of alcohol except for medical purposes
Uncle Tom's Cabin
abolitionist book by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Gag Rule
1835-1844 - stopped any anti-slavery discussion in Congress
Cyrus McCormick
Invented mechanical reaper
Prigg v Pennsylvania
Supreme Court case that decided federal law superseded state law
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama
phrase meaning before the civil war
John Deere
Founded Deere & Co. - largest construction and agricultural manufacturers in the world
Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
James K. Polk
Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
Horace Mann
Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education - created public school system in MASS - became model for nation
National Banking Act
1863 - Established system of national charters for banks
The Impending Crisis of the South
Book dedicated to the Non-slave holders of the South - by Hinton Helper
Freeport Doctrine
Stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property
William Lloyd Garrison
White Abolitionist - Early 1800s - published The Liberator
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Irish Immigration
Large number of Irish migrated to the US because of the potato famine
Seneca Falls Convention
First women's right's convention in US - led by Elizabeth Stantonand and Lucretia Mott
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Battle of Antietam
1862 - first civil war battle to occur on Northern soil
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Oregon Territory
Territory in the upper western corner of the US - claimed by both Britain and US
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
States have right to nullify any federal law - John C Calhoun was a big advocate
Mexican Cession
and that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. This territory included California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there
Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
Apologist's view of Slavery
Thought there was nothing wrong with it - cited bible
Compact Theory
claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states
Alexis DeTocqueville
French philosopher - wrote Democracy in America
Charles River Bridge Case
case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract
Bleeding Kansas
Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state
Nature of the Union
topic on which the Lincoln-Douglass Debates centered on
Commonwealth v Hunt
Supreme Court decision that legalized labor unions
Wilmont Proviso
Bill that banned slavery from lands acquired from Mexican War
Sumner-brooks Affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
Trail of Tears
Forced migration of Indians to the Indian Territory in 1831 - decried by Jackson
Crittenden Compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
John Slidell
Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government
John C Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Removal of Deposits
Jackson removed all of the federal money from Bank of the US - killed bank
Force Act
Passed after civil war - protected voting rights of blacks
Religious group founded by Joseph Smith in NYC - forced to move to Illinois then to Utah
Perpetual Union
belief that the union should never be split up - against succession
William Seward
US senator who negotiated purchase of Alaska
Neal Dow
Mayor of Portland, ME - founder of Maine Temperance Union - secured passage of Maine Law
Treaty of Huadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War - US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states - US paid Mexico $15 million dollars
Lucretia Mott
Early 1800s - Feminist - helped organize Seneca Falls
Independent Treasury Plan
Idea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
Manifest Destiny
Belief that god wanted the US to extend the to West Coast
Demoracy in America
book by Aleix DeTocqueville - explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies

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