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3 Polynesian island types
high/volcanic, raised coral, low or reef/atoll-like
Lapitians were...
Polynesians came out of ____, which was populated by the _____ culture
Melanesia, Lapita
fields of root crops like ____ or ____ were _____ in Lapita culture
yams, taros; monoculture
fields of fruit crops like ____ or ____ were _____ in Lapita culture
bananas, breadfruits; polyculture
_____ was most of animal resources in Lapita culture
when Lapitians moved to a new area, they brought ___ and ____ with them
crops, animals
Expansion after Lapita into Polynesia proper out of Melanesia begins in region called _____
What was a critical factor that created a need for intensive agriculture?
Polynesians originally practiced ______/_____
slash and burn/swidden
_____ were developed in Polynesia to help with irrigation
worship in Polynesia focused on _______
seasonal cycles
as a result of intensive agriculture,
limited carrying capacities, natural resources fixed, ecosystems become enclosed
swidden, intensive agriculture, and raising pigs lead to...
...long-term soil depleion
Carrying capacity first ____ from horticulture to agriculture, _____ after agriculture, ends up ______
rises, goes down, lower than it started
Where is Easter Island?
Easternmost island in Polynesia
Prior to humans, Easter Island supported a complex _______ environment dominated by a now extinct species of _______
sub-tropical forest, palm tree
Easter Island was settled between _____ and _____
400 and 700 AD
4 types of canoes used to get to Easter Island
fishing, traveling, ceremonial, war
Enviro. degradation on Easter Island begins and coincides with the ______ climactic event
Little Ice Age
Population climax in Easter Island was around ____ with about ______ people
1550AD, 7000-10,000 people
After the Little Ice Age, Easter Island _______ and the world _____
became seasonal, temperatures lowered
Stone structures on Easter Island are called _____
Humanistic approach answers ________ questions of prehistory
when, how, and what
Comparative approach answers _____ questions of prehistory
The belief that human societies have evolved culturally along a single developmental trajectory. This perspective is no longer used.
unilineal cultural evolution
Progress results from increasingly rational thought, which lets people gain wealth and leisure time necessary to control nature and improve themselves morally
enlightenment philosophy
The idea that the world’s existing peoples reflect different stages of human cultural evolution
comparative method
Conflict between societies and classes removes unfit individuals and social forms, benefits humanity in long run
social Darwinism
The view that each culture is the product of a unique sequence of developments in which chance plays a major role in bringing about change
historical particularism
Social formations that lie between egalitarian foragers and ranked societies, normally horticultural and sedentary, competition present
tribal societies
A centralized political system found in complex societies, have virtual monopoly on power to coerce
archaic state
A complex urban society with high cultural achievement in arts and sciences, craft specialization, surplus of food/labor, hierarchically stratified social organization
Cultivation using only hand tools, land used for a few years and then allowed to lie fallow
Using draft animals, machinery, or hand cultivation in which plots are used annually
intensive agriculture
Childe: Animal domestication occurred as animals, plants, and people congregated around water sources during arid years, agriculture preceded
oasis theory
Braidwood: Agriculture arose in areas where ancestors of wheat and barley grew because people wanted to increase productivity and stability of food base
hilly flanks theory
The effects of a population reaching carrying capacity
population pressure
Agriculture arose because of overpopulation in favorable environment that cause emigration to marginal lands
density-equilibrium model
The number of people that a unit of land can support under a particular technology
carrying capacity
A plant native to southern Mexico, believed to be the wild ancestor of maize
The amount of energy acquired by a forager per unit of harvesting/processing time
return rate
The idea that foragers select foods that maximize the overall return rate
optimal foraging theory
Changes in social systems are best understood as mutual natural selection among components rather than as a linear cause-effect sequence
A broad arc of mountains in the middle east where domesticated plants are found today
fertile crescent
Culture in Levant consisting of first settled villages, trade goods, and maybe early cultivation of domesticated wheat. Lacked pottery.
A climatic interval characterized by a rapid return too cooler/drier/highly variable climatic conditions
Younger Dryas
People began using ground stone tools, manufacturing ceramics, and relying on domesticated plants and animals
Relatives that one is related to by marriage, rather than blood
Attributes origin of the state to administrative demands of irrigation
irrigation hypothesis
Attributes origin of state to administrative burden of warfare conducted for conquest
warfare and circumscription hypothesis
Long, low islands in shallow lakes (form of intensive agriculture of Aztecs)
A set of beliefs that rationalizes exploitive relations between classes or social groups, provides rationale for existence
Ancestors are intermediaries between natural and supernatural, demonstrated by burials
ancestor worship
a commodity (2 things)
has intrinsic value, is one of a kind
4 components of heritage
history, commodity, who you are, expectations of future
First piece of legislation used to protect the past. Wasn’t very useful, was very intrusive to privacy and private land. Tried to protect every cultural resource.
1906 Antiquities Act
Meant to deal with looting (including vandalism) and development
1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Compliance law- Meant to curb development by requiring that you do a cultural resource impact study
Section 106 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Oversees 106 compliance and is advocate for archaeology. May be involved in state to town level laws
State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)
Inventory heritage properties on federal land
Section 110 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Increased fines for looting, made it illegal to traffic in certain types of material objects
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) 1979
Addressed repatriation
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990
NAGPRA required repatriation of...
...human remains, funerary objects, objects of cultural patrimony, sacred objects
A professional field that conducts activities, including archaeology, related to compliance with legislation aimed at conserving cultural resources
Cultural resource management
90% of archaeologists work for ___
Requires federal permits before excavating or collecting artifacts on federal land, established a permitting process, and gave the president the authority to create national monuments
Antiquities Act of 1906
Physical features, both natural and artificial, associated with human activity. Unique and nonrenewable.
cultural resources
Created the National Register of Historic Places, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, State Historic Preservation Offices, and a process to mitigate the impact of development. It also requires that gov’t agencies provide good stewardship of
National Historic Preservation Act (WHPA)
A list of significant historic and prehistoric properties (e.g., districts, sites, buildings, structures, objects)
National Register of Historic Places
The area that will be directly and indirectly affected by a construction project (in some cases, the areas seem from a construction project)
area of potential effect
Prohibits excavation/removal of artifacts from federal property without a permit, prohibits the sale, exchange, or transport of artifacts acquired illegally from federal property, and increased the penalties for violations of the act over those of the An
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA)
Made looting/damaging a felony
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA)
A listing of archaeologists who have agreed to abide by an explicit code of conduct and standards of research performance
Register of Professional Archaeologists (RPA)
Requires that signers create legislation and the administration to regulate import/export of cultural objects, forbid their nations’ museums from acquiring illegally exported cultural objects, establish ways to inform other nations when illegally expor
UNESCO Convention of 1970
Protects Indian graves on federal and tribal lands, recognizes tribal authority over treatment of unmarked graves, prohibits commercial selling of native dead bodies, requires an inventory and repatriation of human remains held by the federal gov’t and
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA)
Any items placed with a human body or made to contain human remains at the time of burial (regardless of whether they are known to have been associated with a deceased individual)
funerary objects
Specific ceremonial objects necessary for current practice of traditional NA religions by present-day adherents
sacred objects
Any items with ongoing historical, traditional, or cultural importance that were once owned by the entire tribe, and were inalienable at the time they left the tribe’s possession (no one had the right to give them away)
objects of cultural patrimoney

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