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Gr 10 Sci - Ch 2


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Biology combines what 2 main forms of scientific expploration
Discovery science
Hypothesis-based science
Which type of biology is mostly about describing nuture
Discovery science
Which type of biology is mostly about explaining nature
Hypothesis-based science
The scientific study of life
"Science" comes from what latin word
To know
The use of the senses like vision or hearing
Recorded observations
Observations that can be recorded as measurements
Scientists all use the metric system to measure
Data recorded as a description rather than a measurement
Describes the quality like color or behavior
Name one important example of something observed by accident
Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin from mold in 1928
Grew bacteria and saw it did not grow near mold
A logical conclusion based on observations
When there are many specific observations together you can make a general conclusion called
When was the first cell discovered
In 1600s in oak bark
All living things are make of cells
Cell theory
Steps of the scientific method
Suggested answer to a scientific question
A condition that can differ within the experiment
An experiment that tests the effect of a single variable
Controlled experiment
How can scientists deal with unwanted variables
Make a control group and an experimental group
Collected body of data from observations and experiments
Well tested explantation that makes sense of a variety of scientific observations
Physical, mental or mathematical representations of how people understand a process or idea
Like a diagram of blood flow through the heart
Goal of science
Understand nature through careful observation and testing of hypotheses
Goal of technology
Apply scientific understanding for some specific purpose
Which is an example of qualitative data
Water freezes at 32 degrees
The girl is 5 feet tall
The fish swam in a zigzag way
What is a hypothesis?
a. prediction
b. collection of data
c. possible explanation that can be tested
d. controlled experiment
Possible explanation that can be tested
A factor that can change in an experiment
Example of a use of technology
a. searching for cancer causes
b. understanding muscle use
c. using artificial skin for burns
Artifical skin for burns
Whan an animal does as it interacts with its environment
Animal behavior
An explanation in terms of a organisms immediate interaction with the environment
Immediate cause
(answers a "how" question like how does a bird find the nest)
An explanation based on the organisms evolutionary adaptations
Ultimate cause
(answers a "why" question about why a behavior is developed)
A behavior that is performed correctly by all members of a species, even if they have no previous experience
Innate behavior

Born knowing how to do something
Innate behavior that occurs as an unchangeable sequence of actions
Fixed action pattern

(Like goose that pushes at the air to move an egg even when egg is removed)
Daily innate rhythm with a cycle of about 24 hours
What controls an organisms circadian rhythm
Internal biological clock
A change in an animals behavior resulting from experience
When an animal learns NOT to respond to a repeated stimulus
(Hearing a clock tick - your senses hear it but you stop listening because there is nothing to gain)
Learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animals life that is irreversible

(Baby goslings who follow the mother goose)
When a particular stimulus or response is linked to a reward or punishment

(A cat comes to the sound of a bag of treats)
A meaningless stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment
Classic conditioning

(Dog associates the ringing of a bell with food and so salivates when a bell rings, even without food)
Trial and error learning that occurs when an animal learns to associate an act with a positive or negative response
Operant conditioning

An animal avoids touching something that will cause it harm
Ability to respond appropriately to a new situation without previous experience

Ability to analyze a problem and think of possible solution
Interactins between 2 or more of the same species
Social behaviors
Physical struggles or threatening behaviors
Aggressive behaviors that test strength
Aggressive behaviors within a group of animals that results in a ranking of individuals
Dominance hierarchy
An area that individuals defend and others are excluded
Elaborate behaviors before mating
Courtship ritual
Signals among animals that include sounds, odors, visual displays, touches
What is an example of a species with a very complex complex social system
Individuals work together in a way that is benficial to the group
What is an example of animal cooperation
A pack of wolves work together to capture larger animals
Musk oxen form a ring around young oxen to protect them
What is the immediate cause of a fixed action pattern?
a. the task
a stimulus and response
c. imprinting
Stimulus and response

A fixed action pattern happens when a stimulus occurs and the action doesn't stop until it is completed
How are flying squirrels who were kept in complete darkness able to keep rhythms of activity?
They maintain ability to keep activity rhythms in darkness or light because of internal clock - CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
Your brain ignores the constant sensation of touch from your clothes because of:
a. imprinting
b. habituation
c. fixed action pattern
d. operant conditioning
Small fish swimming together can protect them because they look like one big fish. This is an example of

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