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The study of language as sound in human speech or natural languages
Acoustic Phonetics
The production of sound
Auditory Phonetics
The Reception of Sound
Language as arrangement and relationship among parts of speech (nouns, noun phrases, verbs etc)
Language as meaning
The material and observable thing itself
Things which stand for other things, including words
Denotative Meaning
The basic, core concept conveyed by a symbol
Connotative Meaning
meanings which fluctuate, based upon attitudes and the individual
Stylistic Meaning
A register, ex: a register (or tone) of formality
Affective Meaning
When meaning is overwhelmingly emotional or affect based
When meaning is driven by context (speaker intent, relationship)
structural ambiguity
when the meaning of a sentence is unclear because words or phrases could be either nouns or verbs
Lexical Ambiguity
a lack of clarity in a single word
Syntactic Ambiguity
lack of clarity in a phrase
Semantic Ambiguity
primarily concerns referent and symbol
Semantic Vagueness
Unclear what precisely a word is referring too ex: i would love to go to that (what is that?)
Single Symbol and multiple referent
one word applies to two things
single referent and multiple symbols
one thing has two words
pragmatic ambiguity
can be structural or semantic - arises because of context specific details
One person addressing many... it is a demonstration of truth, it asks practical question and is based on probability
one on one discussion it is a search for truth, it focuses on the broad philosophical questions and it looks for certainty
Proof of ethics (credibility)
Proof of emotion
Proof of Logic
Figurative vs. Literal Language
Figurative is non-literal speech, it is expression departing from straight forward description (similes and metaphors)
explicit comparison between 2 dissimilar things (as ____ as)
implicit comparison between 2 dissimilar things
Extended Metaphor
2 or more source terms from different source discourse
Mixed Metaphor
2 or more source terms from different source discourse
Active Metaphor
recognizable as figurative in nature
Dead metaphor
not recognized as figurative - seems literal
entire story serves as metaphor
an intentional exaggeration
intentional understatement in meaning or degree
affirming something by negating its opposite
replacement of one thing by something related (part-for-whole, whole-for-part, controller-for-controlled)
How does burke perceive life?
Language is a strategic human response to a specific situation
Burkes belief about persuasion?
Persuasion is the speakers ability to identify with an audience
the common ground that exists between speaker and audience... The greater the substance the greater the identification
General Effect of media violence
Heavy viewers develop exaggerated sense of things, the "mean world syndrome" violence we see on the screen cultivates paranoia
Heavy Viewers
1/4 the population they watch 4 or more hours of TV per day and they have a skewed perception of reality
Light Viewers
1/4 the population, they watch less than 2 hours of TV per day
4 cultivated attitudes
Chance of involvement with violence, fear of walking alone at night, perceived activity o police, general mistrust of people
Levels of violence for different sectors of society
african americans, hispanics, women, aged and children are both under-represented and over-threatened, relative to realities of life.
What is important to us?
"We judge as important, that which the media judges important"
Media agendas
The media elites set the agenda and politicians set the agenda by raising topics and framing
The media tells us what to think about certain issues. The Paradox is that it is inevitable
Spiral of Silence
The increasing pressure people feel to conceal their views when they think they are in the minority
What drives our willingness to conform?
fear of isolation
Hegemonic Encoding
The unseen bias and one-sidedness involved in meaning making wheere powerful interests decide how things are defined
The failure or unwillingess to realize the biased nature of hegemonic encoding, and thus the tendency not to question
"those images, concepts and premises which provide the framework through which we represent, interpret, understand and make sense of social existence
minimal justification
There is a lack of obvious or adequate justification, there is aneed to create justification
distressing mental state, doing things that don't fit what you know
Selective Exposure
It prevents dissonance from occurring. We selectively attend to information
forces that determine the capactiy some person has to practice control over some other person
The actual behavioral practices some person practices over some other person
One up
movement to gain control of the exchange... answers with substance, instructions, orders, topic changes
one down
yield control of the conversation... support responses, questions which seek supportive answers, non complete phrases
one across
neutral control
social scientific
culture is something we have and we can discover universal laws concerning the development and management of culture
interpretive (understanding)
culture is about deep (espoused and assumed) meaning. Culture exists because it means something to us.
crictal (critique and praxis)
culture is illusory. Powerful people control systems of ideas especially through the media.
Culture is...Socially constructed
way of life developed and shared by a group of people
Culture is... Learned
through our interactions with others
Culture is... articulated
we do not practice our entire identity at all times we exchange identities at the appropriate time
Culture is... material
developed through and within certain artifacts (those that we deem significant)
Culture is... symbolic
we affiliate certain symbols with culture(assigned and agreed upon meaning)
cultural principles or established rules of what is accepted and appropriate behavior
CAT - Communication Accommodation Theory
Two people from different cultural groups will change the way that they communicate in order to create a better understanding and approval
becoming more similar to the other person adopting thier style of communicating
accentuating the differences between yourself and another person
maintenance (underaccomodation)
persisting with your original communication style
Psychological Approach
strategic self-presentation is the way the inner or provate self strategically manifests and is monitored in external behavior
Pragmatic Approach
we perform and talk ourselves (even unintentionally) into identities
Supportive Face
The need of every member of society to be desirable to others and be favorably regarded by them
Protective Face
Our need for freedom of action - not to be interfered with
The public self-image that every member of society wants to claim for himself and is unobservable
the actions that people take in creating, maintaining and fixing face. directly observable
Elements of a Group
groups have a perception of common goals, perception of shared norms, structured interaction, interdependence
group think
manner of decision making/problem solving where dissent/difference is suppressed to save group cohesion
Linear Phases
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing
High Ambiguity, Low Conflict. People are still getting to know each other
Low Ambiguity and high conflict. Development of coalitions and their is dissent
Either high or low ambiguity and low conflict. Final decision is underway
low ambiguity and low conflict. There is a consistent expression of ideas
functions of communication (hirokawa and gouran)
Analysis of the problem, goal setting, identification of alternatives, evaluation of positive and negative characteristics
Analysis of the Problem
Examine current conditions, assessment of nature, extent and probable cause of the problem
Goal Setting
Key dimension of success, establish criteria to evaluate alternatives and decide if what we are seeking and how we are seeking it makes sense
Identification of alternatives
engaging creativity and seeing what are all the possibilities
Evaluation of Positive and negative characteristics
Positive and negative bias
positive bias
accentuating the positive aspects and overlook the negative
negative bias
accentuating negative aspects and overlooking the positive
Prioritizing the Functions
must accomplish all 4 functions for high quality decision, no function is more central that the others and the function priority depends on the context
The rules and resources
the ability to choose and choose differently
a formula of how action should be structured
properties of social systems, drawn upon and reproduced by knowledgeable agents in the course of interaction
how do rules and resources change within a group
if the structure changes it is because the group has done something to change it
Classic Organization
Like a machine
Human Relations Organization
Human Pyschology/family
Human Resources
Employees as Resources/Teams. (human needs)
System Organization
Main goal of critical approach
increase production
strict and rigid upward/downward ordering of tasks and commands
how does weick view organizing
as a way to reduce uncertainty
the active bracketing of some information, increased equivocality, need to reduce uncertainty
retrospective sensemaking what enacted information means
the way behaviors and ideas "hang with us". rules are retained in memory for future
rules and cycles
cycles help us develop rules
how do we use ethnography to study culture in organizations
⬢ Seeks to discover who people think they are, what they think they are doing, and to what end they think they are doing it.
What is a cultural approach is interested in?
The aim of most symbolic analysis is to create a better understanding of what it takes to function effectively within a given culture; begins with a sense of bewilderment

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