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Music Test ;)


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Church Modes
- 8 Modes
- Reciting Tone in authentic mode= 5th above
Reciting Tone in plagal mode= 3rd below the reciting tone of the corresponding authentic mode

Primary Source Documents
an original fundamental/authoritative document pertaining to an event or subject of inquiry

a first hand eyewitness account of an event
ex) manuscript

-consul and minister to Theodoric, ostrogoth ruler or Italy
- wrote on philosophy, logic, theology and mathematical arts
-wrote De Institutione musica (the fundementals of music)

De Institutione musica
- the fundamentals of music
- written by Boethius
- treats music as a part of a quadrivium
- music is a science of numbers, ratios, porportions determine intervals, consonances, scales & tuning
- music divided into 3 parts
- musica mundane
- musica humana
- musica instrumentalis

musica mundane
- music in the universe
- numerical relations controlling the movement of stars & planets, changing of seasons and elements
musica humana
- human music
- harmonizes and unifies the body and soul and their parts
musica instrumentalis
- instrumental music
- audible music produced by instruments or voices, which exemplifies the same principles of order especially in the numerical ratios
- neume-like noteshape used to indicate a short rythmic pattern
- medieval instrumenta dance
- has several sections, each played twice with 2 different endings
- open and closed cadence endings
- triple meter, relatively short sections

Guillaume de Machaut

- leading composer and poet of the french Ars Nova
- 140 musical works set in his own poetry
- awareness of self as individual creator
- desire to preserve his creations
- composed in most genre
- motets, mass

Notre Dame
- Cathedral in Paris that took almost a century to build
- oral transmission

Rythmic Modes
ligatures: combinations of note groups that indicate different patterns of longs and breves

- 6 modes
LB *
LL *

The Magnus Liber Organi
- Great book of Polyphony
- Leoninos & Perotinus created polyphony for Notre Dame

- edited the Magnus Liber
- made better clausulae (in notre dame polyphony, self-contained section of an organum that closes with a cadence)
- created organum for 3 or 4 voices
- organum duplum- two voice organum

- polyphonic vocal composition
- earliest motets add a text to an existing discant clausula
-13th century motets feature one or more voices, each with its own sacred or secular text in Latin or French, above a tenor drawn from chant or other melody
- 14-15th century motets feature isorhythm and may include a contratenor
- 15th century- on : any polyphonic setting of a Latin text (other than mass)

Parallel organum
type of Polyphony in which an added voice moves in exact parallel to a chant (normally a P5 below it)

- either voice may be doubled at the octave

Emperor Constatine I
- 313
- monotheistic/christian
- huge body of land
- Edict of Milan
- legalized christianity and allowed the church to own property
- Hagai Sophia
- Italy , Greece & Turkey were unified in Christianity

bodo of texts and rituals
- unision
- byzantine chant: uses formulas reflecting the phrasing of text
- western chant: ambrosian chant & gregorian chant

Guido of Arezzo
He introduced a set of syllables corresponding to the pattern of tones and semitones in the succession of notes (c-a)
- solomization
- UT, RE, MI , FA, SO, LA...UT
- helped sightsinging, locaging semitones in chant
Guidonian Hand
a mnemonic device used for locating the pitches of the system of hexachords by pointing to joints on the left hand

- counter clockwise spiral
- gamma ut at tip of thumb
- semitones near corner of hand

Church Calendar
-Christmas (Advent)
- Easter (Lent)
Divided into Proper (christmas, easter) and improper (normal)
Proper Mass

Ordinary Mass
KYRIE- repetitive, antiphonal, aaabbbccc
GLORIA- long text, neumatic
AGNUS DEI- neumatic
CREDO- syllabic, longest text, faith
SANCTUS- neumatic, 3 times, repitition

8 services celebrated daily at specific times

- MATINS (midnight - sunrise)
- LAUDS (sunrise)
- VESPERS (sunset)

Characteristics of Chant
- Responsorial
- Antiphonal
- Direct

Text settings
- neumatic
- melismatic

- expanded on existing chant
-1 of 3 ways:
- new words and music
- extended melismas
- text set to existing melody or melismas
- neumatic
-sung by priest

- addition to chant
- Syllabic
- initial sentence, series of paired of sentences, final unpaired sentence
- embellished liturgy
- banned by council of trent because they wanted to simplify and standardize liturgy

Hildengard of Bingen
- women excluded from priesthood
- convents
- writer & composer
- Praise mary, Trinity or local saints
-vary from syllabic to melismatic
- exceeded octave range

Ordo Virtutum
- Sacred music drama not attached to liturgy
- The virtues, morality, devil
- divinely inspired, most recorded, best known composer of sacred monophony
- wrote both music and words

- lower-class itinerant musicians who traveled alone or in groups, earning a precarious living by performing tricks, telling stories, singing or playing instruments
- more specialized musicians, many of whom where employed at a court or city for at least part of the year
- also travelled
- came from varied backgrounds

Meister singer
-unaccompanied solo song
- urban merchants and artisans
- performed in concerts

- modeled after troubadours
- knightly poet-musicians who flourished between the 12-14th centuries
- sang of love (minnelieder) faithfulness, duty, service, loyalty that knights & nobles owed to their king and that christians owed to their church

- 12th century style of polyphony in which the upper voice or voices have about 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice

- in medieval systems of notation, a unit of duration
- 3 tempora (measure of 3 beats)
Oblique organum
- organal voice remains on the same note whith the principal voice moves) in order to avoid tritones
Substitute Clausula
In Notre Dame Polyphony, a new clausula (discant style) designed to replace the original polyphonic setting of a particular segment of chant
Free organum
organal voice moves in a free mixture of contrary, oblique, parallel & similar motion against and usually above the chant
Metrical text
- metric, rhymed & strophic vernacular translation of a psalm, sung to a relatively simple melody that repeats for each strophe
a serious medieval song, monophonic or polyphonic, setting a rhymed, rhythmic Latin poem
Franconian notation
- system of notation described by Franco of Cologne around 1280, using noteshapes to indicate durations
- still relied on 3 fold groupings called perfections
- double long, long, breve, semibreve

Mensuration signs
- in ars nova and renaissance systems of rhythmic notation, signs that indicate which combination of time & prolation to use
- Full Circle= Perfect Time
- Half circle= imperfect time
- dot= major prolation
- no dot= minor prolation

Ars Nova
style of polyphony from 14th century France, distinguished from earlier styles by a new system of rhythmic notation that allowed duple or triple division of note values, syncopation and great rhythmic flexibility

- specific for pitch & rhythm

Mode, time, prolation
the 3 levels of rhythmic division in Ars Nova

- Mode= division of longs into breves
- Time= division of breves into semibreves
- Prolation= division of semibreves into minims

Phillipe de Vitry
- french composer, poet, church canon
- administrator for the duke and the King of france
-inventor of a new art = ars Nova
- specific for pitch & rhythm
- motets, in 3 voices and Latin text
- isorhythm: tenor laid out in segments of identical rhythm

Petrus de Cruce
- extended the rhythmic variety of the Franconian motet
- tenor: dotter half notes (harmonic foundation)
- duplum: 3 semibreves (accompaniment)
- triplum: many semibreves
- tempo must have been slower than in a franconian motet
- 3 voices move at different paces

John Dunstable
-most highly regarded english composer of the 15th century
- composed in all polyphonic genres of the time
- 3 voice sacred works

Old Hall Manuscript
- The principle source of early 15th century english polyphony
- consists primarily of settings of sections from the Mass ordinary, motets, hymns & sequences
- orginally prepared for the chapel of Thomas, duke of clarence, brother of henry V

-continental style of polyphony in the early renassaince
- 2 voices are written, moving mostly in parallel sixths and ending each phrase on an octave, while a third unwritten voice is sung in parallel fourths below the upper voice
- Guillaume du Fay

Aquitanian Polyphony
-style of polyphony from the 12th century, encompassing both discant and florid orgaum
Ad organum faciendum
- on making organum
- preserve rulers for improvising or composing in the new style
Vox principalis vs. Vox Organalis
- organum was originally improvised, one singer performed a notated melody (VOX PRINCIPALIS) and another singer, singing by ear provided the un-notated second melody (VOX-ORGANALIS)
De Harmonica Institutione = Musica enchiriadis
-music handbook
- anonymous musical treatise from the 9th century
- it is the first surviving attempt to establish a system of rules for polyphony

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