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rational-emotive behavior therapy
treatment where illogical self defeating thoughts are identified and the client is helped to replace them with more realistic and beneficial ones
pituitary gland
regulates growth, thyroid, reproductive, pancreas, adrenal cortex, and water and salt metabolism
Oedipus complex
constellation of impulses that occur during the phallic stage where a boy's id impulses involve sexual desires for the mother and desire to eliminate the father
affescts development, reproduction, and sexual behavior in women
a positive or negative attitude toward people in certain groups
inferential statistics
a type of statistical analysis designed to provide confidence on whether the results appeared by chance
maladaptive patterns of behavior that are disruptive to the person or others
gender roles
general patterns of work, appearance, and behavior associated with being male or female
statistical infrequency
that which is unusual or rare
projective personality tests
type of personlaity test that is unstructured stumuli that can be perveived and responded to in many ways, ie from unconcious
null hypothesis
assertion that the manipulated variable will have no effect on the depent variable
nervous system
network of billions of cells that know what is going on inside and outside the body
token economy
system for improving behavior of clients in institutions using tokens to be given as rewards redeemed as various rewards
forebrain structure that links info from different system and plays a part in emotions
experimental group
a group that receives the experimental treatment
proactive interference
when old memories interferes with remembering new information
terminal drop
is the decline in mental functioning that occurs in the months or years preceding death
did a study on obedience using Hallowe'en costume
photoreceptors in the retina that allow sight even in dim light that cannot show colours
aptitude tests
are tests on your future/practical knowledge like college entrance exams
depend variable
a variable that is depend/controlled by another
identity crisis
usually occurs during adolescence using bits and pieces of self knowledge learned as a child then the individual develops and intergrates an image of themselves as unique
proteins on the cell body that receive signals, allowing the post synaptic potential to begin in the dendrite
part of the hindbrain that controls finely coordinated movements
is a trait personality psychologist who began with examining definitions from 17000-4000
social phobias
strong irrational fears of relating to social situations
suprachiasmatic nuclei
internal 24 hour alarm clock and temperature control
glial cells
NS cells that hold the neurons together and help them communicate with each other
naturalistic observation
research on behavior without interfering
humanistic approach
behavior results from how individuals perceive the world
IQ score/intelligence quotient
a number that reflects relative standing on a test within a population of the same age group
social identity
beliefs we hold about the groups to which we belong
community psychology
a mental health approach where the goal is to minimize or prevent psychological disorders by promoting social change and making treatment methods more accessible to those who have little or no access
photoreceptors in the retina that are less sensitive then rods, and can distinguish colours
Margaret Washburn
first woman to earn a doctorate in pyschology
transferred excitation
is when arousal is transferred from one experience to a different situation
ability to detect stimulus
health psychologists
psychologists who study the effects of behavior on health and the impact of illness on behavior and emotion
perceptual constancy
perception of objects as retaining many of it's characteristics despite changes in its retinal image
storing information in memory over time
developed a theory on personality coming from the actualizing tendency focusing on the self
Mary Whiton Calkins
first woman president of the American Pyschology Association
Charles Spearman
believed that there is a general intelligence
latent learning
learning that takes place after the fact ie you don't learn in lectures you lean for the tests that happen weeks later
usually occurs during a person's thirties when a person becomes concerned with producing something worthwhile
partial reinforcement extinction effect
is a reinforcement schedule that causes us to be unable to predict reinforcements/rewards and is difficult to erase the behavior from ie using a broken slot machine you don't know it's broken so you keep using it to see if it will eventually pay out
major depressive disrder
condition where a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks/months losing interest in all activities and taking pleasure in nothing
transformational/charismatic leaders
leaders who concentrate on creating a vision of the group's goals, inspire the pursuit of those goals and give group members reason to respect and admire them
developed the theory of stages of attachment
dissociative identity disorder
a dissociative disorder where a person appears to have more than one identity, each of which behaves in a different way
social-cognitive approach
views personality as behaviors that are acquired through learning believing the process and social situations play a part
translating properties of the stimuli into patterns of neural activity
parallel distributed processing
new experiences change our overall knowledge
referring to sensory systems that tell us about the location f our body parts and what each is doing
was a personality psychologist believing that it came from growth and also created the heirarchy of our individual needs
conditions of worth
the beliefs that a person's worth depends on displaying the 'right' behaviors, attitudes, and values
restating or paraphrasing what the client has said
impaired functioning
difficulty fulfilling appropriate and expected social roles
bipolar disorder
condition where a person alterates between the two emotional extremes of depression and mania
nitric oxide
is responsible for memory and penile erection
fluid filled spiral structure in the inner ear where auditory transduction occurs
defense mechanisms
are unconscious psychological and behavioral tactics that help protect a person from anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of unacceptable id impulses
Ogive curve
applies to our perceptions, movements, and sensations
number of complete waves or cycles that pass a given point per unit of time
refers to the test consistency or stability in scores over repeated test occaisions, is found through re-testing, split half, and parallel forms
quality of a sound that identifies it
negative reinforcer
found in operant condtitioning where negative stimulus is removed ie eating to cause hunger pains to go away
creating a pattern of information memory can assess and use
believed that there is specific abilities in intelligence that can be grouped
reprensentative sampling
research participants who represent what the researchers want to study
process of selecting participants for research study
Robert B Cattell
believed that intelligence is fluid (genetic) vs crystallized (learned)
drugs that reduce tension and symptoms of anxiety
developed a study regarding the intelligence of horse handicappers
process through which sensations are given meaning using knowledge, experience and understanding of the world
overall intensity of the wavelengths making up light
visible light
physical dimension of light waves that refer to how much energy the light contains, and that determines its brightness
group therapy
psychotherapy involving six to twelve unrelated individuals
forebrain structure sending messages from the senses to higher brain areas
state dependant memory
memory dependant on your internal state their learned
an anxiety disorder that involves strong irrational fear of an object or situation that doesn't justify such a reaction
psychodynamic aproach
to personlity was developed by Freud to emphasis the role of the unconcious in determining our behaviors, thoughts and feelings
environmental psychology
the study of the effects of the phsyical environment on people's behavior and mental processes
educational psychologists
psychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improving such methods
light wavelength
physical demension of light waves that refer to their length and produces sensations of different colours
somatoform disorders
a psychological problem where a person shows syptons of some physical (somatic) disorder where there is no cause
found in operant conditioning when successive aproximates of behavior are forced into the desired pattern ie dog trainers use this process to train dogs to be obedient to their owners
latency period
occurs after the phallic stage where sexual impulses are dormant lasting until puberty
Howard Gardner
believed that there are multiple intelligences (7/9)
actor-observer bias
bias of attributing others behavior to interal causes while attributing one's own behavior to exteranl causes
contact hypothesis
idea that prejudice and discrimination will diminish through contact with the group increases
fibres that receive signals from the axons of other neurons
refers to any development process ie walking, that is guided by biological or genetic factors (nature) and isn't affected by environmental conditions (nurture)
peripheral nervous system
part of the nervous system that sends to and from the central nervous system
the way one thinks of oneself
developed the inkblots, an example of the prejective personality test
vestibular sense
proprioceptive sense that gives info about the position of the head and its movements
cognitive approach
behavior results from research on creating, perceiving, and receiving info that creates patterns of action
midlife transition
often occurs during a person's forties when a person reevaluates the decisions they have made concerning goals and relationships
interrater reliability
is the degree to which different mental health professionals agree on what label a particular person should have
fight or flight response
a physical reaction triggered by the sympathetic nervous system preparing the body to fight or run from a threatening situation
preoperational period
is Piaget's second stage of cognitive development lasting from age 2 to 7 where children learn to use symbols allowing them to talk, pretend, and draw
developed the theory of attachment based in the quality using the strange situation
bystander effect
phenomenon where the chances of someone helping in an emergency decreases as the number of people present increases
longitudinal method
testing the same people over time, very expensive, dropouts due to death, moved, or loss of interest
an area of the hindbrain that controls the vitals in the autonomic functions, ie heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
sequential design
chart that gives results on both types of tests where you are able to compare them
fibre tracts
bundles of axons that travel together
developed the trichromoatic theory of colour
t test
is a inferential statistical method to analyze data to determine if the difference between two means are the result of chance
Is the Ray Gun theory that believed perception happened through rays being emitted from the eyes
dissociative amnesia
a psychological disorder marked by a sudeen loss of memory for one's own name, occupation, or other identifying information
social perception
process where people interpret information about others, draw inferences about them, and develop mental representations of them
biological psychology
is the study of the physical and chemical factors in behavior and mental processes
object permanence
is acquired during the sensory period when children form mental representations of objects and actions, they know an object exists even if they can't see or touch it
medium cones
response to green
postive reinforcer
found in operant conditioning where a behavior is rewarded ie dog gets bone (positive reinforcer) for rolling over
is the style of an infant's emotional response to the enviroment
believed in Gestalt where the sum is greater then the parts
operant conditioning
procedure where we know the results of a response to a certain stimulus to get the desired results ie students know to study for tests to get good marks
psychosexual stages
is part of Freud's psycholdynamic theory where each of the five stages refers to an area of the body to which a person feels dominant pleasure starting with oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital. Failure to resolve problems occuring during these stages can lead to fixation in adulthood
unconditional positive regard
in client-centered therapy, the thereapist's attitude that expresses caring and acceptance of the the client as a valued person
distance between the peaks and the baseline of a wave
stimulus generalization
found in classical conditioning when stimulus' are generally similiar but not the same yet cause the same reflex ie fear of a type if dog causes fear of all types of dogs
postconventional moral reasoning
in Kohlberg's theory is the highest level of moral reasoning based on personal or universal standards of justice, equality, and respect for human life
strong fear of being away from a safe place/person
development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug
observational learning
learning by watching others responses ie seeing someone else get burned by a hot burner tells us that the stove is hot
sociocultural model
an approach that views mental disorders as being explained by and emphasizing the role of factors such as gender, age, physical situations, cultural values
concrete operation
is Piaget's third stage of cognitive development occuring between the ages of 7 and 11 where children can addition, subtraction, and conservation
endocrine system
cells that form organs called glands that secrete hormones to communicate to each other
industrial/organizational psychologists
psychologists who examine factors that influence people's performance in the workplace
escape conditioning
when we learn responses to escape a troubling stimulus ie changing your route home to avoid most of rush hour traffic
prediction stated as a testable proposition, usually in the form of an if-then statement
sense of taste
or gustation, sense that detects chemicals in solution that come into contact with receptors inside the mouth
how high or low a tone sounds, depends on frequency of a sound wave
random assignment
placing participants through a coin flip or some other random selection
patterns of thinking rendering the group unable to realistically evaluate the options and decisions
constant, or decrease in responsiveness to constant stimuli, ie being unaware of wristwatch
blind spot
point where the optic nerve exits the eyeball
self fulfilling prophecy
process where an initial impression causes us to bring out a behavior in another that confirms the impression
is the presentation of a troubling stimulus or the removal of a positive one ie taking away child's TV priviledges because of bad behavior
Schachter Singer Lazarus theory
cognitive interpretations and physiological reactions shape emotional experiences
unconditioned stimulus
found in classical conditioning where it causes the reflex without conditioning ie the cat food
classical conditioning
procedure of neutral stimulus being paired with a stimulus that causes a reflex action so that the neutral stumulus alone causes it ie can opener for cat food causes cats too salivate
retreival cues
stimuli that help retrieve from long term memory ie chunking, elaborative
primacy effect
recall is good for first few items (primary relates to long term)
correlational studies
research that examines the relationships between variables
olfactory bulb
brain structure that receives messages regarding smell
Cannon Bard Central theory
is the theory that emotion starts in the brain, specifically the thalamus which relays sensory input to the cortex where there is a direct central nervous system experience of emotion, later research has shown that different emotions have different pathways sometimes bypassing the thalamus completely, ie intense phobias
generalized anxiety disorder
a condition that involves long lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object/situation
Gilbert Haven Jones
first African American to earn a doctorate in psychology
raw information from the senses
behavior modification
treatment where operant conditioning is used to change behavior
gate control theory
theory stating the presence of a gate in the spinal cord that either permits or blocks the passage of pain impuslses to the brain
EEG (Electroencephalograph)
billions of neurons charted on an electrical field
the space between the outer membrane of a cell and the nuclei, that keeps a stable chemical environment
double blind design
research method where no one in the experiment knows what is tho be expected
avoidance conditioning
when we learn responses to avoid a troubling stimulus ie accept most invitations to dates because you don't like explaining or saying no
is the oldest part of the brain lying just inside the skull and is a continuation of the spinal cord
simple, involuntary, unlearned behavior that's directed by the spinal cord without instruction
conduction deafness
fusion of bones in the mid ear region
engineering psychologists
psychologists who study and try to improve the relationships betwenn human beings and the computers and other machines they use
false assumptions that all members of some group share the same characteristics
school psychologists
psychologists who test IQ, diagnoses students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement
selective attention
process of focusing on only one stimuli
cells specialized in determining certain types of energy and turning it into neural activity
part of the brain responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior such as sensory info, voluntary movement and abstract thinking
cognitive maps
a mental representation of an environment ie knowing how to get around your highschool years after you've graduated
short term memory
stage of memory lasting 10-18 part of working memory, gets lost from displacement and decay
aversion conditioning
method for reducing unwanted behavior by using classical condtioning principles to create a negative response to a stimuli
vestibular occular reflexes
allows you to focus on one point when body is in motion
cyclothymic disorder
a mood disoder containing all the symptoms of bipolar disorder but to a lesser degree
pain disorder
a somatoform disorder where a person complains of severe often constant pain witn no physical cause
cognitive therapy
organized problem sovling approach where therapists actively collaborate with the clients to help them notice how negative thoughts precede anxiety and depression
social impairment
phenomenon where the presence of others impairs a person's performance
antegrade amnesia
memory loss after injury
information processing
information must pass through all 3 areas of memory to be embedded
fixed interval
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a certain length of time
drugs that relieve the symptons of schizophrenia or other severe forms of psychological disorders, also called antipsychotics
developed the theory of personality caming from the four humors in the body
genital stage
occurs from puberty onward, genitals are the primary source of sexual pleasure, satisfaction depends on the earlier stages being resolved
specific phobias
phobias that ilvove fears of specific stimuli or situations ie heights
depth cue resulting when the eyes rotate to project the same image of an object on each retina
case study
research on rare behavior in particular individuals or groups, good for studying new treatments
electroconvulsive therapy
brief electric shock administered to the brain to reduce severe depression that does not respond to drug treatment
process of taing in information that causes a person to modify an existing schema
unique patterns of enduring psychological and behavioral characteristics that we can compare and contrast with others
social psychology
psychology that explores the effects of the social world on the beahvior and mental processes of individuals and groups
developed the law of effect, where rewards determine behavior being repeated, also believed intelligence to be determined as specific
surface of the back of the eye on which the lens focuses light rays (images)
antisocial personality disorder
long term persistent pattern of impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, even criminal behavior
ability of lens to change it's shape and bend light rays so objects are in focus
is the knowledge that a substance's number or amount does not change even when it's shape or form does
spontaneous recovery
is the reappearance of the reflex after extinction in classical conditioning ie Pavlov's dogs conditioned to salivate upon the sound of the bell, extinction, then after time heardt the bell, they would salivate
helping behavior
any act that benefits another person
visual codes
mental represenations of stimuli as pictures
second order conditioning
found in classical conditioning when a secondary neutral stimulus is associated with the conditioned stimulus so that causes the reflex ie a light flashing at the time the bell rings for Pavlov's dogs
developmental psychology
area specializing in documenting the course and cause of people's social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development throughout the life span
changing one's behavior or beliefs to match those of others caused usually by unspoken group pressure, real or imagined
tacit knowledge
is not taught is 'picked up' on the way, found in experts on subjects
working memory
stage of memory allowing us to manipulate or work with information in short term memory
TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
an image of a specific brain region and it's changes
technique in the 1800s of feeling bumps and ridges on the skull, believed to explain personality, mental abilities, talent etc, some scientists believe MRIs are the 21st century version of this
cognitive-behavior therapy
behavior treatment where the way a person thinks as well as the behavior is change
Lewis Terman
brought the test to Stanford and saw that it was good for children but not adults, he was the first to come up with the IQ test
semantic codes
general mental represenatations of an experience
mental representations of what we know and expect from the world
biased sample
research participants who aren't randomly chosen among the larger population
developed the theory of attachment where it relies on group socialization
biological psychologists
psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes
stimulus discrimination
found in classical conditioning when you are able to discriminate between stimulus to determine the correct reflex ie knowing you child's cry over the cries of other babies
is the basic unit of knowledge that takes the form of a pattern of action
are external substances that cause defects in the developing baby when introduced to the womb
somatization disorder
a psychological problem where a person has numerous physical complaints without physicl illness
humanistic/phenomenological approach
to personality focus's on the individual's perceptions, interpretations, and experiences of reality, assuming that humans have an innate drive to grow and to fulfill their own inique potential
transfer appropriate processing
memory depends on coding matching retrieval cues
term used by Bandura to describe the expectations of success in a situation, and may play a role in the behavior of that situation
gestalt therapy
form of treatment seeking to create conditions, usually in groups, where a client can feel more self aware and self accepting
drugs that reduce depression
mental representations of categories of people/place/things etc
is the third prenatal stage which lasts from the third month of pregnancy til birth
a treatment with no affects, yet the person receiving it believes there will be
social dilemmas
situations where actions causing individual rewards. when adopted by all cause negative consequences
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
provides the genetic code
an act that is intended to harm another person
conversion disorder
a somatoform disorrder in which a person appears to be blind, deaf, paralyzed, or insensitve to pain
physican in ancient Greece said that psychological disorders resulted from an imbalance in four humors or bodily fluids (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile)
tiny space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another
specialized cells in the retina that convert light energy into nerual activity
medical doctors who have completed training in treatment of mental disorders
accessory structures
structures which modify the incoming stimuli, ie eyelid, outer part of ear
controls metabolism
is the halfway point in the set of data
part of the visual field that has no meaning-the backgroud
sense of smell
or olfaction, sense that detects chemicals that are airborne
chemicals that are secreted by glands to stimulate cells that aren't connected
unconditioned response
found in classical conditioning and is the reflex action ie the cats salivating
essential colour determined by the dominant wavelength of a light
behavior genetics
study of how genes and enviornment affect behavior and mental processes
retroactive interferece
when new information interferes with remembering old memories
basilar membrane
floor of the fluid filled duct that runs through the cochlea
empathy-altrusim theory
theory where people help others because they feel empathy towards them
formal operational period
is Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development beginning at the age of 11 where children can think and reason about abstract concepts, generate hypotheses, and think logically
context dependant memory
memories helped/hindered by the setting their learned in
forebrain structure regulating hunger, thirst, sex drive, with connections to the autonomic NS and other parts of the brain
stroboscopic motion
illusion in which lights or images flash in the rapid succession and are perceived as moving
opponent process theory
theory of colour vision that states visual elements that are sensitive to colour are grouped into red-green, blue-yello, and black-white pairs
matching hypothesis
notion that people are more likely to form committed relationships with people who are similiar to them
corpus callosum
bundle of fibres that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres
personality disorders
long standing inflexible ways of behavior becoming styles of life that create problems for others
developed the method of savings, where learning is easier the second time around
evaluation people make about their worth as human beings
retrograde amnesia
memory loss before injury
absolute threshold
the minimun amount of stimuli that can be detected (50 percent)
random sample
research participants who are randomly chosen among the larger poplulation
psychological model
an approach that views mental disorders as being caused by inner conflicts or other psychological processes
broca's and wernicke's area
two regions that are found on the left of the cortex and are vital for language interpretation and production
bottom up processing
recognition that depends on info coming from the sensory systems
developed prefferential looking in infants
reduction in the sensation of pain in the presence of a normally painful stimulus
developed the theory of attachment where the early attachment affects the later attachments
reticular formation
found both in the hind and midbrain, controlin arousal and attention
cognitive dissonance theory
theory on attitudes changing by adjusting the differences in the between attitudes and behaviors
research giving people questionnaires/interviews to obtain attitudes, beliefs, intentions, and opinions
explicit memory
process of trying to remember
part of the eye behind the pupil
feature detectors
cells in the cortex that respond to specific features of an object ie corners, straight lines
trait approach
views personality as a unique combination of dispositions/tendencies to think and behave in certain ways that are stable/consistent over time and in situations
normal distribution
is where data scores mostly occur in the middle of the range also known as standard deviant
just noticeable difference
smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy (difference threshold)
any type of behavior where people work together to achieve a goal
reality principle
is the operating principle of the ego because it must comprimise between the irrational id and the demands of the real world
IQ tests
any test designed to measure intelligence in a standard scale ie Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
task-oriented leaders
leaders who provide close supervison, give instructions, and discourage group discussion
any type of behavior where people try to obtain a goal for themselves, denying the goal to others
psychometric tests
measure psychological capacity
somatosensory system or somatic senses
senses including touch, temperature, pain, and kinesthesia that are spread through out the body
forensic psychologists
psychologists who are involved in many aspects of psychology and law
Brown Peterson Process
method of determining how long unrehersed memory lasts
depth perception
perception of distance allowing us to experience the world in 3D
cross sectional method
testing a range (cross section) cheap and fast
phallic stage
occurs from the three to five years of age when pleasure is derived from genital area. This is when the Oedipus/Eletra complex can occur, fixation can occur with problems with authority/love relationships
internal noise
spontaneous random firing of nerve cells in the always active nervous system
describes the number of oberservations that make up the data
Robert J Sternberg
cognitive psychologist specializing in intelligence believe intelligence to be goal oriented adaptive behavior
(Titchener, Wundt) study of consciousness and it's structure through introspection (looking inward)
social psychologists
psychologists who study how people influence one another's behavior and attitudes, especially in groups
a fibre that carries signals AWAY from the cell body
trichromatic theory
theory of colour vision that states info from 3 different visual elements combine to produce the sensation of colour
primary reinforcers
are survival rewards ie food and water
numbers that represent research findings providing a conclusion
condition of being able to for the first time reproduce, onset of menstration/sperm production
was in intelligence (fluid and crystal), also an early trait psychologist
sports psychologists
psychologists whose research is aimed at maximizing athletic performance
stimuli grouped into units for easier retreival
somatic nervous system
subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that transmits info from the senses to the CNS, and back to muscles that move the skeleton
developed a theory on personality coming from expectancies
signal detection theory
a mathematical model of what determines a person's report of a near threshold stimuli
vicarious conditioning
conditioning through others responses to specific behavior ie we learn vicariously the consequences being a lousy tipper equals lousy service at restaurants
clinical, counseling, and community psychologists
psychologists who seek to assess, understand, modify, and prevent behavior disorders
(Watson, Skinner) studying observable behavior through functional analysis
mood disorder
condition where a person experiences extremes of mood for long periods, shifting from one extreme mood to another that are inconsistent with events
recency effect
recall is good for last few items (recent relates to short term)
operational definition
statement of the specific methods used to measure a variable
James Lange theory
is the theory that emotion comes from physiological responses outside the brain, to a stimuli and nothing else
dark adaptation
increase in ability to see in the dark as time passes
variable ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a varied number of responses
developed the first psychology lab in America and believed in functionalism
client-centered therapy
type of therapy where the client makes the decisions
developmental psychologists
psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processess change over the course of a lifetime
big five/five-factor model
five factors that trait theorists believe best defines the basic organizations of personality they include neuroticism, extraversion, openess, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
family therapy
type of treatment involving two or more clients from the same family
auditory nerve
bundle of axons that carry messages from the hair of the cochlea to the brain
structures in the mouth on which taste buds are grouped
developed a theory on attachment where it is a continuous devlopment
false or distorted perceptions of objects or events
reference groups
categories of people with whom individuals compare themselves
is the close emotional relationship between an infant and his or her caregiver
awareness of external stimuli and your own mental activity
I SEE-intraversion, stability, emotionality, extraversion
did an obedience study using shock
large cones
response to red
region in the center of the retina where the cones are concentrated
made of genes and carry an individual's genetic information
biological approach
behavior results from physical processes
method of savings
method of measuring forgetting/saving information in memory through the Brown Peterson Process
process of taking in informamtion that adds to an existing schemas
research where one variable is manipulated against another and the results are interpreted
an elated, active emotional state
developed the memory capacity
when we learn not to respond to a repeated stimulus, like adaptation ie wearing a new diamond ring
small area between the hindbrain and the forebrain, that helps produce smooth movements
top down processing
recognition guided by higher level of cognitive processes and psychological factors ie expectations
are identified as the brain valleys
pleasure principle
the operating principle by which the wants and desires of the id push people to do whatever feels good
in the area of treatment, therapists with advanced training in clinical/counseling psychology
anything that will increase the chances of a behavior repeating itself can be positive or negative
conditioned response
found in classical conditioning is the learned response caused by the conditioned stimulus ie the cats running and salivatin when it hears the can opener
process of directing and focusing psychological resources to enhance perception
sensory registers
memory systems briefly holding information
procedure for reducing anxiety by keeping a client in a feared harmless situation
acoustic codes
mental represenatations of stimuli as sounds
Hierarchical Theories
saw that intelligence is both genetic and learned
myelin, nodes of ranvier, and diameter of axon
accelerates an action potential's movement to bind to another cell
Democritus in the 5th century believed perception happened through replicas
variable interval
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a varied length of time
part of the eye that gives it its colour, and adjusts the amount of light entering it
elaborative rehersal
memorization through association
long term memory
stage of memory where the capacity is limitless, to get information here is hard work
Francis Galton
Darwin's 2nd cousin who believed intelligence is inherited, found in level of processing, and he developed the correlational method
Binet and Simon
developed a mental age vs chronological age
are identified as the brain ridges
BAS-BIS-behavior approach system, behavior inhibit system
dissociative fugue
a psychological disorder involving sudden loss of memory and the assumption of a new identity in a new location
control group
a group that receives none or different treatment to compare the responses
conditioned stimulus
found in classical conditioning only after repeated pairings with the unconditioned stimulus does it cause a reaction ie the sound of the can opener
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
refers to infants born to women who consume moderate to heavy amounts of alcohol during pregnancy resulting in physical malformations in the face or retardation
standard score
expressing the value of a score by indicating its distance from the standard deviant or mean
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
parasympathetic nervous system
subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that helps the body grow, protects and nourishes it
developed a theory on personality coming from person variables
actualizing tendency
an innate tendency toward realizing one's potential
oral stage
occurs during the first year of life when the child derives pleasure from the mouth. Weaned to early or late can lead to fixation of smoking/eating/talking too much or the opposite
anxiety disorder
a condition in which intense feelings of fear and dread are long standing or disruptive
episodic memory
memory for events in one's past
refers to the extent a test measures exactly what it is designed to measure, is found through criterion, content and construct
independant variable
a variable that is manipulated
assertiveness training
a set of methods to help clients learn to express themselves and stand up for their rights in situations
systematic dessenitization
a behavioral treatment method used to treat anxiety where clients visualize feared stimuli in a graduated series while being relaxed
spreading activation
a theory of how semantic memory is retrieved
developed instramental conditioning, ie the Skinner box
a chemical that transfers messages across the snapses
developed our sense of organization
levels of processing
how well we remember depends on our depth of perception
ethnic identity
refers to the part of a person's identity that reflects the racial, religious, or cultural group to which they belong to
social comparison
using other people as a basis of comparison for evaluatin oneself
sudden understanding of a problem ie the chimps solving how to get the fruit in the textbook
studied the ease of admission to hospitals with pseudopatients
most important depth cue of overlapping objects determining nearness
environmental psychologists
psychologists who study the relationships between people's physical environment and their behavior
did a study using monkeys on attachment
is the score in the data that occurs more frequently
familial retardation
is usually mild and lacks an obvious genetic or environmental cause; it results from a complex interaction between heredity and environment
place theory
theory of hearing that states that hair cells at a place respond most to a specific frequency of sound
cluster of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
anal stage
occurs during the second year of life when the child derives pleasure from the anal area. If toliet training is too demanding or is begun too early or too late can lead to fixation on neat/messy disorders
or tympanic membrane, tightly stretched membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations that match sound waves striking it
procedural memory
memory for information on how to do things
crumpled part of the outer ear that collects sound waves
pattern of continuous/intermittent drinking that can cause addiction and almost always causes severe social, physical and other problems
according to Sternberg it is defined as a combination of three characteristics: possession of knowledge, the ability to use information processing to reason about about the world, and ability to employ reasoning adaptively
psychological state occuring in groups where members loss individuality and begin to do things they wouldn't do alone
false beliefs such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or severe depression
chemicals released by one creature, detected by another, and shaping the seconds behavior
PET (positronemisson tomography)
an image of neurotransmitters, drugs, tracers for blood or glucose use
organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
(Freud) Explaining personality and behavior through developing and treating individuals
motion cue where rapid expansion of the size of an image fills the available space on the retina
psychodynamic approach
behavior results from the unconscious, developed by Freud
sensorimotor period
is Piaget's first stage of cognitive development where the infant's mental activity is confined to sensory and motor functions
found in classical conditioning where stimulus' are repaired after extinction and are learned faster than the first time
is a process of teaching children society's rules and the skills they need examples including authoritarian, permissive, and authoriatitive
behavioral genetics
is the study of how genes affect behavior
couples therapy
form of therapy that focuses on improving communication between partners
critical period
refers to tany time when if development doesn't occur in the baby it never will
immediate memory span
maximum number of items recalled perfectly is 7 +/- 2
maintenance rehersal
memorization through maintaining by repitition
developed the three different body types
action potential
a message or electromagnetic impulse sent down the axon and stimulates the release of a neurotransmitter
association cortex
part of cerebral cortex that intergrates sensory and motor info and complex cognitive tasks
Weber's law
smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a fraction of the intensity of the stimulus
conventional moral reasoning
in Kohlberg's theory is moral reasoning characterized by concern for others due to social obligations such as caring for one's spouse and family
social loafing
phenomenon where people exert less effort in a group activity then when performing the same task alone
quantitative psychologists
psychologists who develop statistical methods for evaluating and analyzing data from psychological research
dscrimination stimuli
found in operant conditioning when we know to distinguish between stimulus to correctly respond to it ie the sky is clear the temperature is warm and there is no wind good time for a kyak trip
dissociative disorders
conditions involving sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consiciousness, or identity
Eletra complex
occurs during the phallic stage when girls experience penis envy transfering their love for their mothers to their fathers
optic nerve
bundle of fibres that carries visual info to the brain
arousal cost-reward theory
theory attributing helping behavior to people's efforts to reduce the unpleasant feelings caused by the confrontation of a suffering victim, while also considering their own costs involved
authoritarian parents
are firm, punitive, and unsympathetic demanding obedience, offering no encouragement of independance and rarely offer praise
an unselfish concern with another's welfare
motor cortex
part of the cortex that controls volunatry movement
personality psychologists
psychologists who focus on people's unique characteristics
social neuroscience
a specialty focusing on the influence of social processes on biological processes and the influence of biological processes on social processes
social facilitation
phenomenon where the presence of others improves a person's performance
permissive parents
give their children complete freedom and their use of discipline is lax
spinal cord
part of the CNS that receives messages from the senses and sends messages from the brain to the body
a strong unjusitified fear of physical illness
strategy for organizing information into patterns to remember (never eat shredded wheat)
relative depreivation
sense that one isn't getting all that one deserves
psychological dimension of sound determined by the amplitude of a sound wave
verbal scale
found in the Wechsler tests and is a subscale that measures verbal skills
objective personality tests
type of personality test using paper and pencil containing clear, specific statements or concepts requiring a written response
primarily based on Binet's tests devised to help children's mental abilities determined by age graded questions, score received is mental age divided by choronological age multiplied by 100 resulting in IQ
cerebral cortex
outer surface of the forebrain
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
an image of brain anatomy, functioning ones provide images of blood flow and neural activity
repetitive fluctuation in the pressure of the medium of air
is calculated by adding observations together and dividing by the total number equaling the arithmetic average of the data
dysthymic disorder
condition containing all the symptoms of major depression but to a lesser degree and for longer (2 years min)
social cognition
mental processes associated with people's perceptions of and reactions to other people
process of identifying the cause of an event through cognitive appraisal
descriptions of the frequency of particular scores providing information about a certain person's test score compares to the population
fixed ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses
substance related disorders
problems involving the use of pshcoactive drugs for months/years in ways that harm the user/others
encoding specificity principle
ability of cue depends on if it matches specifically with it's original coding
treatment of psychological disorders through psychological methods such as talking about the problem, encouraging adaptive ways etc
autonomic nervous system
subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the CNS, the organs, glands, and readies the body for vigorous activity
the degree one variable relates to another
semantic memory
memory for general knowledge of the world
process of recalling information in memory
forebrain structure that forms new memories
percentile score
a way of stating percentage of reseach data that fall at or below a certain score
a system that translates info from outside the nervous system into neural activity
(Wertheimer) mental processes=the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
control the majority of movements in the first weeks and months of life, they are quick unlearned responses to external stimuli
the science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare
response criterion
internal rule a person uses to decide on reporting stimuli
biopsycholosocial model
explaining mental disorder as a combination of biological, social, and cultural factors
confounding variable
any factor that affects the dependant variable with/instead of the independant variable
frequency histogram
a pictogram of the results of research data
one of the structures of the personality containing the basic life and death instincts ie innate desires and impulses
type of autism, like Rainman they have one extrodinary ablility
elaboration likelihood model
a model of a change in attitude through a central route (content) or through a peripheral route (persausion cues)
an opening in the eye just behind the cornea, through which light passes
property of the CNS that allows it to strengthen neural connections, and synapses as well establishing new connections
binocular disparity
depth cue based on the difference between the retinal images received by each eye
treating peope in certain groups differently, the behavioral part of prejudice
nerve deafness
when hair cells are damaged and hearing aids are a no go
process of converting incoming physical energy into neural activity
behavioral approach
behavior results from what is learned by rewards and punishments
preconventional moral reasoning
in Kohlberg's theory is typical of children younger than 9 years of age where moral reasoning is directed toward avoiding punishment and following rules to one's own advantage
random variables
uncontrolled factors that can influence the dependant variable
is formed from internalized values and dictates what people should and should not do
developed the first psychology lab in Liepzig Germany in 1879
the distance between peaks in a wave of light or sound
affects development, reproduction, and sexual behavior in men
secondary reinforcers
are rewards that have acquired meaning by association ie money has meaning of it's uses not its taste
volley theory
or frequency matching theory, a theory of hearing that states a firing rate of an auditory nerve matchs a sound wave frequency
sensory cortex
part of the cerebral cortex, located in the parietal, occipital , and temporal lobes that receives info from the skin, eyes, and ears
systematic procedures for observing behavior in a standard situation where the behavior is measured with a numerical scale or category systej
changing behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure
performance scale
found in the Wechsler test and is a subscale that measures spatial ability and the ability to manipulate materials
developed the classical conditioning found in learning
was the father of psychology as an organized science and the child movement in America
authoritative parents
reason with their children, are firm but understanidng, and encourage give and take, with age give more responsiblity, set limits but encourage independence
nuerobiological model
a view that mental disorders are caused by illness in physical processes, the anatomy, and chemistry in the brain
adrenal cortex
regulates salt and carbohydrate metabolism
the view that knowledge comes from experience and observation
panic disorder
anxiety in the form of sever panic attacks that come without warning or obvious cause
sensory memory
brief memory (.5-3 sec) gives an impression, gets lost from decay
a tendency towards a cognitive emotional or behavioral reaction to objects in one's environment
what occurs when a person or a group believes another person or group is interfering with achieving a goal
are genetic blueprints that governs the development of an individual
refractory period
short recovery time after a cell fires. during which it can't fire again
fundamental attribution error
bias of attributing others behavior to internal factors
in client-centered therapy, a consistency in how a therapist feels and acts towards clients
adjusting one's behavior because of a direct request
is a behavior that operates on the world in some way ie when a child says they are hungry to a parent and then are fed
an approach that recognizes roles of both predispositions and situational factors when psychological disorders happen
transactional leaders
leaders who provide rewards for good behaviors and punish or correct those who don't
frustration-aggression hypothesis
a proposition stating that frustration always leads to some form of aggressive behavior
a pattern of severely disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior that is seen to be the most disabling of all mental disorders
obsessive compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder where a person becomes obsessed with certain thoughts or feels a compulsion to do certain things ritualistically
evolves from the id and attempts to satisfy the id's demands thru comprimises to not break society's rules
is the part of the zygote that will mature into an infant (2nd month of pregnancy)
part of the visual field that has meaning
person-oriented leaders
leaders who provide loose supervison, ask for group members ideas, and are concerned with members feelings
curved transparent protective layer through which light waves enter the eye
proprioceptive sense that tells us where the parts of the body are with respect to one another
short cones
response to blue
specialized cells that send and receive messages in the NS
official North American diagnostic classification system; the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual includes more than 300 specific diagnostic labels for mental disorders using five axes to give a broad picture of a person's problem
behavior therapy
treatment where classical conditioning is used to change behavior
evolutionary approach
behavior results from inheritance
empirically supported therapies
treatments for psychological disorders whose effectiveness has been validated by experimental research
a behavioral therapy method where desired behavior is demonstrated for the client
experimenter bias
an example of a confounding variable where the experimenter's beliefs influence their participants to make certain responses
achievement tests
are like test in this class
in client-centered therapy, the therapist's attempt to appreciate how the world looks from the client's perspective
information processing
is a cognitive approach to studying cognitive development differing from Piaget through focusing on the quantitative rather tan qualitiative changes in a child's ability
found in classical conditioning when the paired stimulus' stop being paired so the reflex stops ie the shepherds stopped responding when the boy cried wolf because there was no wolf paired with the cry anymore
implicit memory
process of accidental recollection

Deck Info