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Nutrition related to fitness and sports exam 1


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Quantitative research
collect numerical data (statistics)

Numerical division
Qualitative research
formative or exploratory, data collection with oberservations, interviews, etc.

Purpose division
Grounded theory research
collects observations from real-life situations to develop theoretical propositions

Basic research
not done with a specific goal, pursued to increase a body of knowledge and explore the unknown

NOT used in sports nutrition
Type division
Applied research
takes known information and attempts to solve problems or rework existing concepts or information, used to support decision making

Type division
Descriptive research
describe the status at a given time, useful in hypothesis generation, provides baseline data, monitors change over time and establishes associations

Purpose division
focus group
people are assembled as a group to answer questions ona specific topic
delphi technique
panel of experts separately answer questions, judgement or answers are circulated to other panel members, general consensus is the goal
Case reports
report of observation of one subject, describes quantitatively the experience of a condition or disease, helps generate a hypothesis

descriptive research (purpose division)
Case series
expansion of case report, observations of more than one subject

descriptive (purpose division)
Survey research
describe and quanitify characteristics of a defined population, statistical profile of population, useful for establishing association and baseline data, based on a probability design from questionnaires, interviews, examination

descriptive (purpose division)
analytical research
test hypotheses, detect causal association, provide proof of cause or effect

purpose division
all factors are held constant except test variable
clinical trials

analytical (purpose division)
not experimental
cohort or follow up designed to mimic clinical trial, not experimental, testa hypothsis, therefore analytical

analytical (purpose division)
Cross sectional research
based on data collected on a group of subjects at a singe time; now and then

Time dimension division
time series research
consists of observations across time of a single group or across groups at a single time, useful in identifying and tracking trends

time dimension division
longitudinal research
follows the same sample group over a prolonged period, baseline measurements are amde at the beginning of the study and other measurements are taken later or at various intervals
prospective study
begins with presumed causes and goes forward in ime to presumed effects, begins with belief that a particular behavior or variable will create a particular cause
retrospective study
begins with manifestation of an outcome and goes back in gime to uncover relationships with presumed causes
24 hr dietary recall
interviewer asks the subject to recall all foods eaten and portions consumed during 24 hours of the previous day
Food record/diary
subject keeps a food diary for one or more days; records time, names, and quantities of foods consumed; records can be weighed, measured, or estimated
Weighed/measured food intake
subject or interviewer weighs and measures food portions prior to consumption by the subject, written record of food descriptions and portion sizes is kept for one day or longer, portion sizes are more accurately weight than food record/diary
Diet history
open-ended questionnaire, concerns food use, preparation, portion sizes, food likes and dislikes, usually includes a 24 hour diet recall and/or food frequency
Diet frequency
quantitative or non-quantitative, self-administered questionnaire, consists of a list of food for which the respondent indicates frequency of consumption on a daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly basis
duplicate portions
subject places exact duplicates of the food consumed into a receptacle for one or more days, food are then homogenized and analyzed for nutrients or contaminants
household (family) food intake disappearance data
foods that are used in a 1 week time period in a household, corrected for food purchases, food gifts, food waste, consumption of household food by guests or animals. results are divided by the number of persons in the household and expresses as food commodities consumed per person per day
food availability disappearance data
data on nation food production and food imports, corrected for food exports, waste, storage, and non-human food use; results are expressed as availability of food commodities per person per day
Energy pathway where glycogen is broken down into glucose, occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
stimuli for glycolysis, adrenal hormone that acts at the cell surface which triggers an increase in cycly AMP which promotes a series of reaction that eventually cause glycogen breakdown in both muscle and liver
released when blood glucose is low from alpha cells in pancreas and affects the liver
glycogen phosphorylase
enzyme that promotes the breaking of alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds in glycogen
debranching enzyme
enzyme taht promotes breaking of alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds
glycogenolysis begins and ends with...
glycogen and glucose 6 PO4 (to go on to glycolysis) and glucose 1 PO4 (to raise blood sugar)
breakdown of glucose into ATP. Glucose 6 PO4 is split to yeil 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate. glucose needs to be phosphorylated to begin the pathway, takes place in the cytoplasm
PFK: rate controlling enzyme for glycolysis
Anaerobic glycolysis
glucose is converted to lactic acid with cocommitant production of ATP. When oxygen is available, lactic acid will be reconverted to pyruvate and used as energy
Aerobic glycolysis
glucose is converted to 2 pyruvate with is then converted to acetyl CoA to be sent into the Kreb's cycle
Kreb's cycle
series of reactions that oxidize a part of acetyl CoA, carbon dioxide is produced with concomitant generation of 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP
Acetyle CoA
enters kreb's cyle which occurs in the mitochondrion of the cell
yields three ATP's in elctron transport chain
yields 2 ATP's in ETC
yields 1 ATP

GTP and ATP are rapidly interconverted
Electron transport chain-oxidative phosphorylation
NADH and FADH2 enter the ETC and a sequence of electron transfers help drives the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP
Phosphagen systems:
anaerobic process, provides ATP primarily for short-term, high intensity activities (weight training, sprinting), active at the start of all exercise regardless of intensity

ADP + Creatine Phosphate --> ATP + creatine

Enzyme: creatine kinase
Phosphagen systems:
Myokinase reaction
anaerobic process, provides ATP for short-term high intensity activities

2 ADP --> ATP + AMP

Enzyme: myokinase

AMP also stimulates glycolysis
Lactic acid system
anaerobic or fast glycolysis forms lactic acid from pyruvate
Lactic acid can accumulate (possible contribution to fatigue)
lactic can be converted to lactate by buffering systems in the muscle and blood. This lactate can be used as energ via gluconeogenesis: formation of glucose from lactate and non-carbohydrate sources
Oxygen system
stimulated with longer duration type of exercise, major producer of ATP, can involve aerobic glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and ECT-oxidative phosphorylation
Can utilize acetyl CoA from fat degradation
*beta-oxidation: biochemical pathway for fatty acids to be broken down to acetyl CoAd
Direct calorimetry
chamber is large enough for a person and body heat is measured by change in surrounding water temperature
Indirect calorimtry
small portable instrument (metabolator) that measures the exchange of gases during respiration

RQ= CO2/O2 (respiratory quotient: CO2 coming off vs O2 consumed)
RQ fat=.7
RQ protein=.82
RQ carbohydrate=1.0 (most efficient)
oxidation of each carbon atom in the molecule requires one molecule of respiratory oxygen
Estimated energy requirement
level of energy intake of food which will balance energy expenditure when the individual has a body size and composition and level of physical activity consisten with long-term good health
total daily energy expenditure, sum of BEE, TEF, TEE
basal metabolic rate, energy requirements of necessary physiological activities in a resting post absorptive state
basal energy expenditure, represents the BMR over a 24 hour period
resting metabolic rate, represents BMR plus residual effect of food and previous muscle activity
resting energy expenditure, energy processes over 24 hours
thermic effect of food, elevation of metabolic rate that occurs after ingestion of a meal
exercise metabolic rate, represents increase in metabolism brought about by moderate or strenuous physical activity
thermic effect of exercise, just another name for EMR
physical activity level, illustrates the effect of physical activity
estimated energy requirements, dietary intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health
dietary reference intakes, energy is required to sustain the body's various function, including respiration, circulation, physical owrk, and maintenance of core body temperature.
DRI's will replace RDA's to show a shift in emphasis from preventing deficiency to decreasing the risk of chronic diseases through nutrition
Estimated average requirement, nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the population
recommended dietary allowance, this is the average dietary intake level of a nutrient that prevents a deficiency in 98% of a population
adequate intake, this value is set as a goal for individual intake for nutrients, but does not have a RDA
Tolerable upper Intake Level, this is the highest level of a nutrient that is likely to pose NO risk of adverse health effects in 98% of the population
Activity factors for
Very Light
Simple carbohydrates
monsaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) and disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
Complex carbohydrates
polysaccharides and fiber
amylose- coiled linear structure
amylopectin- branched chain
resistant starch- carbohydrate that is not absorbed in the small intestine but can be fermented to short chain fatty acids in the large intestine and eventually absorbed (5-10% of the energy requirements)
Glucose polymers
commercially prepared chain of glucose molecules
storage form of glucose in the muscle and liver
Dietary: fibers taht occur naturally in plants
Functional: fibers that have been extracted from plants or manufactured for their beneficial health effects

Fibers can be both dietary and functional
Glycemic index
determined by the rate at which CHO is made available to intestinal enzymes for hydrolysis and intestinal absorption
Factors affecting GI
Physical availability of sugar or starch to hydrolytic enzymes: less available lower GI
Cooking: higher GI
Amylose/amylopectin: more amylopectin higher GI
Fiber content: high fiber low GI
Protein and Fat: lower GI
Glycemic load
multiply GI by grams of CHO and divide by 100
another term to describe the way body used glucose
High GI
bagel, bread, candy, carrots, corn flakes, corn syrup, crackers, honey, potatoes, raisins, soda, sports drinks, sucrose
Medium GI
all bran cereal, baked beans, corn, grapes, oatmea, orange juice, pasta, potato chips, rice, long grain rice, spaghetti, whole grain rye bread, yams
Low GI
apple, applesauce, cherries, chickpeas, figs, dates, fructose, ice cream, kidney beans, lentils, skim milk, navy beans, peaches, plums, tomato soup, yogurt
CHO stores in the liver
75-100 grams: 400 Cal
CHO stores in the muscles
300-400 grams: 1200-1600
how glucose is converted glycogen
Required conditions for for glycogenesis
fed state
presence of insulin
presence of glycogen synthase
presence of branching enzyme
secreted by beta cells in the pancrea, stimulated by increased levels of glucose and amino acids, decreases blood glucose, increases cell permeability, inhibits glycogenolysis, promotes glycogenesis
Glycogen synthase
enzyme that helps the transfer of glucose to a glycogen chain
branching enzyme
creates branches in glycogen chain
glycogen supercompensation
depleted CHO stores and then storing as much glycogen as possible
Potential foods to support energy needs during exercise
variety of foods: combination of CHO, protein, fat, emphasis on CHO, fruit, vegetables, starch/bread, and milk exchange, personal choice and initial assessment very important
Carbohydrate supplementation four hours before exercise
before and during recommended especially for long endurance lasting 90 minutes
CHO less than 1 hour before
if prone to hypoglycemia avoid high GI food right before, sometimes using liquid is better so don't get as full
Immediately before exercise
normally not helpful to performance however prolonged exercise at 60-75 VO2 max
During exercise
major support; can help performance
Very high intensity for less than 30 minutes
supplementation will not enhance performance (unless reloading depleted muscle or liver glycogen)
Very high-intensity resistance exercise training
may use considerable amounts of muscle glycogen --> fatigue and strength loss, probably does not enhance endurance
High-intensity exercise for 30-90 minutes
with adequate muscle and liver glycogen CHO supplements do not improve exercise performance
intermittent high-intensity exercise for 60-90 minutes
soccer, ice hockey, tennis, may enhance performance if taken before and during a game
High to moderate-intensity exercise greater than 90 minutes
research supports a beneficial effect of CHO intake on exercise greater than 90 minutes

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