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Psychology Unit 1

Psychology Unit 1 Study Guide terms


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help people with behavioral or emotional problems adjust to demands of life
alter perceptions, thinking, emotions, self-awareness; LSD, Marijuana
B. F. Skinner
called greatest contemporary psychologist, "Behavior changes as a result of its consequences"
Mental Housekeeping
remains of sorting, scanning, and sifting process of brain through information learned
medical doctor with specialized training in medical treatment of mental and emotional disorders
Psychoactive Drugs
Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior; classified by drug's effect on CNS
large numbers of x-rays put together to examine the structure of the brain
Pineal Gland
melatonin, involved in regulation of sleep
Forensic Psychologist
applies psychology to law and legal proceedings
Forebrain Structures
limbic system, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
Four Guidelines for being a psychological detective
What is the statement and who is making it, based on scientific observations, statistics reveal, other plausible alternative explanations
speed up activity of CNS; Ritalin, Adderall, Cylert, Concerta, Meth, Cocaine, Nicotine, Caffeine, Dexedrine
Sigmund Freud
psychodynamic perspective, considered one of the greatest psychologists
Sleep cycle
normally lasts about 90-100 minutes
Control Group
group that does not receive the changed independent variable
enhance effects of neurotransmitters
Ethical considerations of research
protection from harm, confidentiality, voluntary participation, deception and intimidation
Wilhem Wundt
first psychology lab, considered "Father of psychology"
receives the signal, carries signal to cell body
Reflections of Current Concerns
reflect ongoing pre-occupations of consciousness during waking hours
Type 1 Diabetes
total lack of insulin, usually starts in childhood or young adulthood, cannot be prevented because of genetics
Clinical Psychologist
specializes in helping people with behavioral or emotional problems adjust to the demands of life
Steps in Synaptic Transmission
impulse reaches end of axon, molecules diffuse across synapse, molecules attach to areas on the dendrite, molecules interact with receptor sites, receptor sites only accept a particular chemical, neurotransmitters inactive
Stage 2
sleep spindles, NREM
Survey Research
Gather information by asking people directly
Myelin Sheath
Freud Dreaming
"Dreams are road to the unconscious" manifest (actual dream) and latent (symbolism) content
slow down activity of the CNS; alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines
Stage 3
delta waves, NREM
Type 2 Diabetes
obesity and lack of exercise is a main cause, can be prevented and treated
the science of behavior and mental processes
high frequency waves; paradoxical sleep
carries message away from cell body
Terminal Buttons
end of axon, contains chemicals to be released
Independent Variable
variable manipulated by researcher, variable that is changed
computer constructs images showing where radioactive labeled drugs act on brain when told to do something
unexpected death of apparently healthy infant that is not explained by autopsy
gap between axon and dendrite
opium-like substance that blocks pain; "runner's high"
Difference between psychologist and psychiatrist
psychologists require 4 years extra schooling and 1 year internship; psychiatrists require 4 years medical school and 3 years residency
Social Psychologist
influence of other people on behavior
Stage 1
theta waves, NREM
Forebrain Functions
regulation of emotions, hunger, thirst, aggression, sexual behavior
Circadian Rhythms
daily biological changes using internal 24 hour clock
Experimental Group
group that receives the changed independent variable
physiological mechanisms of learning, memory, and behavior
Experimental Method
"Does something cause something else?" (cause and effect)
excessive daytime sleepiness & muscle weakness, REM intrudes waking hours
Case Study
observe 1 person
Substance abuse
pattern of use that has detrimental effects on health and functioning
Midbrain/Hindbrain Structures
spinal cord, medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum
Sleep apnea
breathing stops during sleep, usually found in older, overweight men
increased amount of drug is needed to have the same effect as before
succession of visual images during sleep
Adrenal Gland
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine (adrenaline)
Placebo Effect
take a pill and think it makes you better, even though the pill is nothing (sugar pill)
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
Sleep walking
stage 4 sleep, usually in children
symptoms associated with stopping the drug
bad dreams occurring during REM sleep
insulin, diabetes
Phase advance
advance sleep x number of hours because day has been shortened
Midbrain/Hindbrain Functions
breathing, heart rate, swallowing, reflexes to seeing and hearing, sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature, level of alertness, ability to sleep
images of both surface and deep brain structures are created with high degree of anatomical behavior
Statistical Significant
when outcome from independent variable occurs rarely by chance
Sleep terrors
NREM awakenings, occurs mostly in children, loud screams
seeing how 2 variables relate to one another; ranges from -1.00 to +1.00, with 1.00 being the strong and 0.00 being no relation at all
Freud; normal & abnormal behaviors are determined primarily by unconscious forces; bring unconscious causes of behavior to conscious level
Stage 4
delta waves, NREM
decrease effects of neurotransmitters
Peripheral Nervous System
all parts of nervous system outside of CNS
Correlational Research
taking 2 variables and seeing if they have a relationship
concerned with how psychological and social variables affect health and illness
Thyroid Gland
Thyroxine, metabolism
School counseling
employed by school systems; diagnose & treat learning disabilities and other problems of school-age children
main focus was finding the purpose of consciousness; result was applied technology
Pituitary Gland
master gland, growth, cortisol (related to stress)
difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, frequent awakenings, or poor-quality sleep
death of neurons in brain that release neurotransmitter dopamine, making it difficult to initiate motor movements
Brain activity
dreams are the result of neurons firing spontaneously in the lower brain that are sent to the cortex
Acetylcholine plaques in the brain and tangles inside neurons; exhibit loss of memory
analyze basic elements of conscious experience
Dependent Variable
what is measured
emphasizes free will & individuals control of free will; neither good nor bad outweighs the other
Testosterone (aggression)
cell body
physical (body needs it) and mental (brain thinks you need it)
present day psychology; use of several approaches or part of several approaches
focus on observable behavior; behavior is a function of the environment
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
Types of dreams
flying, naked, falling, losing teeth, chase, and failing exam dreams
Phase delay
delay sleep x number of hours because day has been lengthened, usually easier to do
chemical signal released by terminal buttons and attaches to appropriate receptor site
Naturalistic Observation
observe in real environment & describe what they do
J.B. Watson
founder of behaviorism
Multiple Sclerosis
immune system attacks myelin sheath that covers axons in CNS; muscle weakness, numbness and tingling of limbs, blurred vision
monitors & records electrical activity in brain by use of brain waves

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