This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Health Final


undefined, object
copy deck
What are the explanations given for relationship between religion and health?
(SLiP) Social Support, Lifestyle, Positive emotions
What does social support have to do with health?
May (BPD) Buffer the effects of stress on the body, Positively influence health behaviors associated with disease, directly affect underlying physical mechanisms
What are predictors of adherence and non adherence to medical regimens?
*Patient Variables *Treatment regimen variables *Patient-provider communication
Szasz and Hollander's doctor-patient relationship models
a) Activity-Passivity- traditional model is paternalistic one with providers taking active upper hand and treating patients as passive b) Guidance-Cooperation - traditional model is paternalistic but treat patient as adolescent c) Mutual-Participation - providers and patients take mutually active role
Why does one gender seek health care more than another gender?
Women are more exposed to illnesses; women's health tends to be more fragmentes (several specialists)
What is the relationship between income and perception of health symptoms?
High SES generally report fewer symptoms, but are more likely to seek health care
people who cope with health problems and other aversive events by closely scanning their bodies and environments for information
the condition of experiencing abnormal anxiety over one's health, often including imaginary symptoms
Traditional Oriental Medicine
an ancient, integrated herb-and-acupuncture based system of healing founded on the principle that internal harmony is essential for good health
What has been found about people who are religious?
Devotees of various religions have lower illness and mortality rates
What are the effects of nalaxone on pain?
Binds to opoid receptors in the body, blocking the effects of both naturally occurring and artificial painkillers such as morphine. Effects are brief lasting only 15-30 minutes
What are Health Psychologys major future challenges?
(ARIAA)*Achieve equal success to preventative health care services for all people, Reduce health discrepancies and increase understanding of gender, culture and SES status on health, Increase span of healthy life for all people, Adjust the focus of research and intervention to maximize health promotion with evidence-based approaches, assist in health care reform
What is catastrophizing?
Overestimating the distress and discomfort caused by an unfortunate experience. **People who catastrophize tend to ruminate about painful stimuli, focus excessively on the negative aspects of pain and use more pain medication**
How does positive outlook contribute to health perceptions?
Report fewer problems; consider themselves healthier and less vulnerable to future illnesses
What are the simplest sensory receptors for pain called?
Free nerve endings, found throughout body (skin, muscles, bones)
Attentional Focus
person's characteristical style of monitoring bodily symptoms, emotions and overall well-being ** How people monitor**
What is it called when people ask their friends or family for advice about any symptoms they're experiencing?
Lay Referral system
Collaborative Care
cooperative form of health care in which physicians, psychologists and other health care providers join forces to improve patient care
What is the relationship between education and health?
People with lower education levels are more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors
Melzacks dimensions for categorizing pains
(SEA) *Sensory *Affective *Evaluated
What personality traits have been linked to pain?
Depression, paranoia and social introversion
Who uses CAM most often?
*Women more than men *People with higher education levels *People who have been hospitalized during the past year
What is Gate Control Theory?
Melzack and Wall (1965); Idea that there is a "gate" in the spinal cord that regulates the experience of pain. Pain is not result of straight-through sensory channel
What are direct effects of stress?
(EDIE) Elevated BP, Elevated Serum Cholesterol, Increased hormonal activity, Decreased immunity
What are the major domains of CAM that are recognized by the NIH?
(BEAMM) *Biologically-based therapies *Energy Therapies *Alternative medical systems *Alternative medical systems *Mind-body interventions *Manipulative and body-based methods
What stage of prevention does current health care policy emphasize?
Secondary prevention
Transcendental Meditation
person focuses awareness on a single object or on a word or short phrase, called a mantra
What has happened to the number of psychologists working in general health settings?
Increased dramatically
What is state-dependent memory?
When in good mood; remember more good memories. If in bad mood, more likely to think of past illnesses
What form of pain therapy challenges patients belief?
Cognitive-Behavioral therapy
What brain organs are involved in the transmission of pain from the skin?
Spinal cord --> Reticular formation ---> Thalamus --> Somatosensory area
What goals of behavioral medicine did health psychology share?
Tended to focus on chronic diseases that were the leading causes of death
What area of the brain produces immediate pain reduction when it is electronically stimulated?
(PAG) Periacqueductal Gray
How does family history contribute to health perception?
History of minor conditions: less concerned about familiar symptoms. History of serious conditions: react strongly.
How do you prevent teens from developing bad health habits?
Target even younger "at-risk" individuals, use behavioral immunization programs
What neorotransmitters are involved in pain transmissions in the spinal cord?
(SEG) Substance P, Glutamate, and Enkephalins
What are examples of nonadherence to a medical regimen?
*Organ transplants; failure to adhere to immunosuppressed drug regimens
a component of traditional oriental medicine in which fine needles are inserted into the skin in order to relieve pain, treat addiction and illness and to promote health
the concept of general life force, popular in some varieties of CAM
What is the relationship between SES and health seeking (treatment) behaviors?
High-SES more likely to seek health care; also report fewer symptoms and better health.
What are the most effective pain-management programs?
Multidisciplinary programs that combine cognitive, physical and emotional interventions of CBT therapy with judicious use of analgesic drugs
What has fMRI found about the effects of acupuncture on the brain?
Acupuncture may activate descending pain pathways and other brain structures that modulate perception of pain.
Mindfulness Meditation
meditation where you pay nonjudgemental, in-the-moment attention to changing perceptions and thoughts
patients willingness to follow a prescribed regimen of treatment and success in actually doing so
What is the relationship between SES and mortality?
Low-SES have highest mortality rate
What does Gate Control Theory try to explain?
Pain perception
What happens in the substantia gelatinosa?
Fast and slow nerve fibers synapse with sensory nerves on their way to the brain
What does expectation have to do with interpertation of symptoms?
Exaggerate expected while ignore or not detecting unexpected
What neurotransmitter is produced during stress-induced analgesia?
According to Gate Control Theory, what makes the "gate" close?
Competing information or descending neural pathway
simultaneous occurrence of two or more physical and/or psychological disorders or symptoms
What changes are occurring in medicine due to the internet and telemedicine?
Less frequent visits to ER and Dr.s office; cutting health care costs and physicians are beginning to treat minor problems by e-mail as they had previously done by telephone
To what are the results of some CAM treatments attributed to?
Placebo effect
making believe one is ill in order to benefit from sick role behavior
What is the model of health care that combines physicians, psychologists and other health care professionals?
Collaborative care
a social interaction in which one person (hypnotist) suggests to another that certain thoughts, feelings, perceptions or behaviors will occur
What country spends the most on health care?
What is the central control mechanism in the Gate Control Theory?
Descending neural pathway by which the brain shuts the gate
Evidence-Based Medicine
an approach to health care that promotes the collection and integration of the best research-based evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
(CFS) a puzzling disorder of uncertain causes in which a person experiences headaches, infections of unknown origins, extreme tiredness and difficulties with concentration and memory
What kind of symptoms are most likely to be exaggerated?
Milder symptoms (Ex: PMS symptoms)
Delay Behavior
the tendency to avoid seeking medical care because symptoms go unnoticed (appraisal delay); sickness seems unlikely (illness delay); professional help is deemed unnecessary (behavioral delay); individual procrastinates in making an appointment (scheduling delay); perceived benefits of treatment do not outweigh the perceived costs (treatment delay)
What countries spend less on health care but rank better than US?
United Kingdom and Canada
What is the dominant model for treating chronic pain?
Cognitive-Behavioral treatments/physical therapy
Integrative Medicine
a multi-disciplinary approach to medicine that involves traditional biomedical interventions as well as complementary and alternative medical practices that have been proven both safe and effective
What has randomized clinical trials demonstrated about pain?
Not statistically conclusive
Who uses health services most often?
High SES women and the very young and very old
What do current statistics say about occurrence of tobacco-related deaths?
Eliminating all forms of tobacco use could prevent 400,000 death; decline in the three leading causes of death partly dues to decreased tobacco use
Secondary Gains
the "rewards" associated with sick role behavior, including increased attention, the ability to rest, freedom from responsiblity and so forth.
What does Herbert Benson call the placebo effect?
"remembered wellness"
What reason is given for why there aren't more controlled clinical trials of CAM methods?
Treatment variables cannot always be studied independently
Anectodal Evidence
evidence based on subjective opinions regarding diagnosis and treatment outcomes
What kinds of patient roles predict improvement in symptoms?
Active role and patient adherence
What neurotransmitters regulate how much pain transmissions of slow fibers reach the brain?
What parts of the body does the slow pain system service?
All body tissues except the brain
Holistic Medicine
an approach to medicine that considers not only physical health but also the emotional, spiritual, social and psychological well-being of the person
Health Psychologys Four Lessons
Psychological and social factors interact with bio in health, Own responsiblity to promote and maintain helath, unhealthy lifestyles are harder to change than healthy ones, positive stress appraisal and management are essential to good health
Differeny ways pain is measured
(PBS) *Physical- specific physiological changes that accompany pain * Behavioral - measures signs of pain in a patients behavior * Self-Report- self-assessment surveys
What are the explanations for the efficact of hypnosis?
It resembles other forms of imagery and deep relaxation because it is accompanied by decrease in sympathetic nervous system, decrease in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxoide elimination, and an increase in certain kinds of brain-wave activity
What is the relationship between SES and morbidity?
Low-SES have highest morbidity
What ethnic group has the most negative view of their health?
Native Americans
system that aims to provide holistic care by drawing from several traditional healing systems including homeopathy, herbal remedies and traditional Oriental medicine
Guided Imagery
procedure designed to promote changes in a person's perceptions. Form of self-hypnosis
What is relationship between religion, healing and medicine?
Closely connected and prayer is being used with increasing frequency in the treatment of many chronic disease, including cancer
What did the results of a meta-analysis of CAM therapies show?
No single CAM technique was more effective than any other in reducing BP
What does the term compression of morbidity mean?
Shortening of the amount of time people spend disabled, ill or in pain
What is the relationship between genetics and environmental and psychological factors on the incidence of diseas?
They are intimately connected
Good Guided Imagery
guided imagery that uses all the senses
What ethnic group has the most positive view of their health?
Managed Care
health-care that seeks to control costs by eliminating waste and unnecessary procedures and by providing economically sound treatment guidelines to hospitals and physicians
What are acupuncture energy lines called?
specialized neuron that responds to painful stimuli
What are indirect effects of stress?
(DeCoSLi IPODS) Decreased compliance, sleep, likelihood of seeking health care, Increased delay in seeking health care, smoking, alcohol and other drug use, poorer nutrition , and obscured symptoms
Where is the "gate" in the Gate Control Theory?
Spinal cord
Opoid antagonist
acts on specific receptors in spinal cord and brain to reduce either the intensity of pain messages or the brains responses to pain messages
What is wrong with high-quality health care in US?
Created a two-tier system: State-of-the-Art, high-tech care for those who have health care and substandard (or no care) for everyone else
What are the safety concerns about acupuncture?
Patients may abandon conventional therapy; little risk of infection due to use of disposable needles
What is cognitive distraction?
When we use other senses or thoughts to distract. Ex: Soldier is unaware he is injured until after helping a friend reach safety
Lay Referral System
informal network of family, friends and others who offer their own experiences and advice regarding symptoms
What did Fabrizio Bendetti find?
Only visible placebo reduced pain, placebo-induced anaglesia was clearly mediated by the body's autonomous production of endorphins in response to the expectatin that a treatment would be beneficial. (excersize ball, then pain med)
What are different explanations for how relaxation and meditation work?
(BARS) Bolster the immune system, alter a persons emotional response to symptoms, relieves stress, muscle tension, anxiety and negative emotionality, increased serotonin levels
What are examples of adherence to a medical regimen?
*Taking medication and making lifestyle changes (lose weight; quit smoking) *Taking preventative measures (avoid fatty foods)
What is one of health psychologys most fundamental messages?
Prevention and health promortion or maintenance must be made as important in the health care system as disease treatment is now
What is the syndrome many medical students acquire in their studies?
Medical students syndrome (2/3 believe they have symptoms they study)
people who cope with health problems and other aversive events by ignoring or distancing themselves from stressful information
What chemical substance is responsible for localized pain inflammation?
What is the relationship between education and longevity?
People who achieve higher levels of education live longer and have better overall health
How fast are transmissions through fast nerve fibers?
a fraction of a second
Why are fast nerve fibers fast?
Let your body know it is in immediate pain and to protect from further pain from being exposed to same stimuli
What does gender have to do with perception?
Women report more symptoms then men and use health services more often; women are more sensitive to internal body symptoms; 1/3 of men wouldn't go to Dr. immediately even when experiencing severe chest pains
What does attachment style have to do with adherence to medical regimen?
Insecure: Report less confidence and/or trust in physicians
Illness representation
how a person views a particular illness
What was the most effective treatments for relieving tension headaches?
Biofeedback and relaxation training in a combined treatment
Naturopathic Medicine
the system that aims to provide holistic health care by drawing from several traditional healing systems, including homeopathy, herbal remedies and traditional oriental medicine
How do cultural differences relate to pain perception?
Difference in pain tolerance but not in pain threshold
What is an internal dialogue and what does it have to do with pain intervention?
Conversations with yourself. Helps with pain intervention by replacing maladaptive pain thoughts with more positive and optimistic thoughts
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(CAM) the use and practice of therapies or diagnostic techniques that fall outside conventional biomedicine

Deck Info