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L 1 The Scope Of Pathology


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Experimental Pathology
Aimed at defining specific cellular and molecular abnormalities responsible for abnormal states.

Observation of effects of manipulations on experimental systems:
- animal models of disease
- cell cultures

Carried out in University Departments, Research Institutions and Departments Of Pathology.
The act of identifying a disease in an individual patient.
The process of diagnosis involves:
* Taking a clinical history to document symptoms.
* Examine patient for clinical signs.
* perform investigations guided by provisional diagnosis based on signs and symptoms.

- which organ or body system is affected?
- which general category of disease is present? (eg inflammation, tumours)
- use age, gender, previous medical history etc to deduce a diagnosis or small number of possibilities for investigation.
- Only perform investigations if outcome can resolve the diagnosis or influence the management of the diagnosis.
Diagnostic Pathology / Laboratory Medicine
Identifies characteristic alterations or abnormalities that specifically identify particular diseases.

Thus identifies molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for that disease.

Once an exact diagnosis has been established, correct and effective therapy can be prescribed.

Rational therapy is directed at the control or elimination of the mechanisms responsible for the disease.
pathologic or diseased condition
Anatomic Pathology / Morbid Anatomy
The study of the alterations and organisation of cells, tissues and organs which are associated with disease.

Gross or macroscopic pathology
The investigation and diagnosis of disease from the examination of tissues at the microscopic level.
The study of cells which may be abnormal

Investigates and diagnoses disease from the examination of isolated cells.
Chemical Pathology / Clinical Pathology
The study of biochemical alterations associated with disease.

Studying disease at the molecular level.

Often evident in body fluids eg. blood, plasma, urine

Cross-sectional analysis of the cause and mechanisms of the disease, and the effect of the disease upon organs and systems of the body.
Veterinary Pathology
Branch of pathology concerned with diseases in animals
Forensic pathology
Branch of pathology concerned with the application of medical knowledge to legal problems.

eg cause of death, crime.

(interaction between law and medicine)
Study of disorders of the cellular and coagulable components of blood
Study of the specific defence mechanisms of the body
The study of infectious diseases and the organisms responsible for them
Study of tumours (= new growths, cancer)
A disturbance of the structure or function of the body or part of it.
suffering, that which inspires pity, eg like people with illness or disease.
lecture, logic, study
The scientific study of diseases.

Includes knowledge and understanding of structural,functional, genetic and biochemical changes in from the molecular level to the effects on the individual.

Ultimate goal = to identify causes of diseases to enable the prevention of disease.
The study of the effects of known or suspected poisons
General Pathology
Current understanding of the causation, mechanisms and characteristics of the major categories of disease.
Systematic Pathology
Current knowledge of specific diseases as they affect individual organs or systems
List the chief characteristics that apply to any disease
pathological and clinical features
complications and sequelae
Postmortem examination
Autopsies are useful for:
- determining the cause of death

- audit of the accuracy of clinical diagnosis

- education of undergraduates and postgraduates

- research into the causes and mechanisms of disease

- gathering accurate statistics about disease incidence

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