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to study conscious experience and its structure.
to study how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment.

emphasized the idea that people actively organize their perceptions of the world.
Gestalt Psychology
in scientific research, a prediction stated as a specific, testable proposition about a phenomenon.
an integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena.
a situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and then another variable, while holding all other variables constant.

the variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment.

Independent Variable
in an experiment, the factor effected by the independent variable.
Dependent Variable
in an experiment, the group that receives the experimental treatment.

Experimental Group
in an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group.

Control Group
a physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will.
a statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research.
Operational Definition
only the participants are unaware.
Single Blind
a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group.
Double Blind
in an experiment, any factor that affects th dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable.
Confounding Variables
a group of research participants selected from a population whose members all had an equal chance of being chosen.
Random Sample
the process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study.
the process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment.
Naturalistic Observation
a set of procedures that provides a measure of how likely it is that research results came about by chance.
Inferential Statistics
in research, the degree to which one variable is related to another.
a research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions.
a research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation.
Case Study
sensory neurons. “coming toward”
Afferent Neurons
motor neurons. “going away”
Efferent Neurons
a neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell body.
a neuron fiber that carries signals from the body of a neuron out to where communication occurs with other neurons.
the tiny gap between neurons across which they communicate.
chemical that assists in the transfer of signals from one neuron to another.
one of a class of neurotransmitters that bind to opiate receptors and moderate pain.
an abrupt wave of electrochemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized.
Action Potential
a short rest period between action potentials.

Refractory Period
the subsystem of the PNS that transmits information from the senses from the CNS to the muscles.
Somatic Nervous System
the subsystem of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands.
Autonomic Nervous System
the subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that usually prepares the organism for vigorous activity.
Sympathetic Nervous System
the subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that typically influences activity related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
a massive bundle of fibers that connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other.
Corpus Callosum
cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones.
Endocrine System
secreted by a gland into the bloodstream, which carries it throughout the body.
long, thin structures in every biological cell that contain genetic information.
the biological instructions, inherited from both parents and located on the chromosomes, that provide the blueprint for physical development.
the process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences.
the minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time.
Absolute Threshold
a law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.
Webers Law
the curved, transport, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye.
an opening in the eye, just behind the cornea, through which light passes.
the part of the eye behind the pupil that bends light rays, focusing them on the retina.
the surface at the back of the eye onto which the lens focuses light rays.
(in cognitive development) the process of modifying schemas when familiar schemas do not work.
a depth cue involving the rotation of the eyes to protect the image of an object on each retina.
personality theoriies that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognition, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment.
Cognitive Social Learning Theories
in rogers theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions.
Conditional Positive Regard
in rogers theory, full acceptance and love of another person regardless of that persons behavior.
Unconditional Positive Regard
objective personality test created by Cattell that provides scores on the 16 traits he identified.
16 Personality Factor Questions
according to Rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his/her inborn capacities or potentials.
Fully Functioning Person
personality tests taht are administered and scored in a standard way.
Objective Tests
according to Rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves.
Self-actualizing Tendency
according to Jung, a person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of on his/her interal experience.
according to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and to become what it is inherently capable of becoming.
Actualizing Tendency
a statistical technique, used by Cattell, that demonstrates that various traits tend to cluster in groups.
Factor Analysis
according to Jung, our public self the mask we put on to represent ourselves to others.
personality tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test; consisting of ambiguous or unstructed material that do not limit the response to be given.
Projective Tests
dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways.
Personality Traits
any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning.
Humanistic Personality Theory
according to Adler, the persons effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses.
acording to Jung, a person who usually focuses on his/her own thoughts and feelings
five traits or basic dimensions currently thought to be of central importance in describing personality.
a projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots, the way a person interprets the blots is thought to reveal aspects of his/her personality.
Rorschach Test
a projective test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person writes a complete story.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
an objective personality test designed to assess the BIG FIVE personality traits.
a desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment.
Extrinsic Motivation
acknowledging a stressful situation to the problem of attain the difficult goal.

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