# Psychology Ch. 2 Test of Craziness

## Terms

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- Debriefing
- A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psychologists provide to people after they have participated in the study
- Informed Consent
- A written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail
- Random Sampling
- A technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
- Hypothesis
- A specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory
- Theory
- A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between two or more properties. Theories lead to hypotheses
- External validity
- A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and independent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
- Internal Validity
- The characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and independent variable.
- Randomization
- A procedure to ensure that a participantâ€™s inclusion in the experimental or control group is not determined by a third variable
- Self-selection
- The case in which a participantâ€™s inclusion in the experimental or control group is determined by the participant
- Dependent Variable
- the variable that is measured in a study
- Control group
- One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment that is not exposed to the stimulus being studied
- Experimental group
- One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment; the experimental group is exposed to the stimulus being studied and the control group is not
- Independent variable
- The variable that is manipulated in an experiment
- Manipulation
- A characteristic of experimentation in which the researcher artificially creates a pattern of variation in an independent variable in order to determine its causal powers. Manipulation usually results in the creation of an experimental group and a control group
- Experiment
- A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
- Third-variable problem
- The fact that the causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation
- Matched pairs
- An observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate that a third variable and not the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable
- Matched samples
- An observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control groups in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable and not the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable
- Third-variable correlation
- The fact that two variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable
- Natural Correlation
- A correlation observed between naturally occurring variables
- Correlation Coefficient
- A statistical measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signified by the letter â€œRâ€
- Law of large numbers
- A statistical law stating that as sample size increases, the attributes of a sample will more closely reflect the attributes of a population from which it was drawn
- Sample
- The partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study
- Population
- The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
- Case Method
- A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual
- Power
- The tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things
- Reliability
- The tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing
- Correlation
- The â€œco-relationshipâ€ or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of which has been measured several times
- Variable
- A property whose value can vary or change
- Double-Blind
- An observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant
- Naturalistic Observation
- A method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
- Demand Characteristics
- Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave
- Range
- The numerical difference between the smallest and the largest measurements in a frequency distribution
- Median
- the â€œmiddleâ€ measurement in a frequency distribution. Half the measurements in a frequency distribution are greater than or equal to the median and half are less than or equal to the median
- Mean
- The average of the measurements in a frequency distribution
- Mode
- The â€œmost frequentâ€ measurement in a frequency distribution
- Normal distribution (bell curve)
- a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical
- Frequency distribution
- a graphical representation of the measurements of a sample that are arranged by the number of times each measurement was observed
- Predictive validity
- The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions
- Construct validity
- The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation
- Validity
- The characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it
- Electromyograph (EMG)
- A device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a personâ€™s skin
- Measure
- A device that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers
- Operational Definition
- A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured
- Method
- A set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce
- Empiricism
- Originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events
- Henry wanted to estimate the average height of men in the United States. He measured a sample of his friends on the basketball team, the men that live in his apartment complex, and male members of his family. Whatâ€™s a central problem with Henryâ€™s appr
- He didnâ€™t measure a representative sample
- Ideally, a measurement should have validity, reliability, and ________ in order to be useful to scientists
- Power
- What identifys patterns of variation in a series of measurements?
- Correlation
- The mathematical way of summarizing the pattern of correlation between two variables is to compute:
- A correlation coefficient
- When the odds are acceptably low that random assignment hasnâ€™t failed in an experiment, the results of the experiment are said to be:
- Statistically significant
- When an operational definition of a property is related to other operational definitions of that same property, it is said to be high in:
- Predictive validity
- Measures of central tendency and measures of validity are both examples of:
- Descriptive statistics
- Which of the following values for a correlation coefficient indicates the strongest degree of relationship: -.69, -.35, +.03, or +.59?
- -.69 You are looking at the # not the sign.
- If people respond unnaturally because they are aware of being observed or of participating in research, the method of observation employed is said to be high in:
- Reactivity
- Which of the following is not one of the major ethical principles that psychologists must follow when conducting research: informed consent, debriefing, risk-benefit analysis, or random sampling?
- Random sampling
- All variables that are _________ related are _________, but not all variables that are _________ are _________ related.
- All variables that are causally related are correlated, but not all variables that are correlated are causally related.
- Empiricism is a useful approach, but it provides no guarantee that observations of the world will be accurate. To help observers avoid mistakes and illusions in observation, all sciences need to develop:
- Codes of conduct that observers must follow
- Dr. Klinegen made it clear to her psychology students that if they didnâ€™t participate in her research, they would receive a failing grade. What ethical principle has Dr. Klinegen violated?
- Freedom from coercions
- Correlation coefficients reveal both the _________ and the _________ of a correlation between two variables.
- Direction; strength
- What are the odds that psychologists typically use to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment?
- 5% chance of failure
- The two main features of an experiment are ____________ and ___________.
- Randomization; manipulation
- When the results of an experiment can be confidently attributed to the effects of the independent variable, the experiment is said to be high in:
- Internal validity
- Descriptive statistics include measures such as central tendency or variability. What is another group of statistics that is used to test whether conclusions can be drawn from an experiment?
- Inferential statistics
- The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observations of it is called:
- Empiricism
- The mode, median, and mean are all:
- Measures of central tendency
- When an operational definition of a property and the property itself share meaning, the operational definition is likely to be high in:
- Construct validity
- Why do neither matched pairs or matched samples effectively eliminate the possibility of a third-variable correlation?
- Both techniques allow us to rule out a particular third variable as a casual agent, but not the possibility of other third variables.