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Ch 30 - History

Key terms and class notes, from my guide.

word doc: http://www.box.net/shared/jc3adkmpwk

Terms

undefined, object
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Sugar islands
Islands know for producing sugar cane in west indies that EU powers fought voer
Subic Bay
Largest naval base in Asia that was est. in Philippines by US gov't; closed in 1990s
Scorched-earth policy
Tactic employed by guerilla Cubans to oust Spaniards from lands; burned all viable resources to try to starve SP out
New York City
Popular destination for Puerto Rican immigrants to US
Remington
Hearst sent this artist to Cuba to draw sketches that would make the situation seem bad
Africa
Partitioned in 1880s by EU ppl in a rush of colonial conquest
Mahan
Captain in navy who argued that control of sea was key to world dominance: The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, stimulated naval race and American cries for a storng navy
Foraker Act 1900
Congress gave Puerto Ricans their own government, as a US territory
Wheeler
Confederate cavalry hero during Civil war who was given a command in Cuba, thus exemplifying how the "bloody chasm" was being closed
Cuba
Country in Caribbean oppressed by SP and hurt by US tariffs, so rebels started doing damage
Taft
Head of US gov in Philippines - Philippine Commission
Dole
Company that cans tropic fruits, esp. pineapple, and moved canning from HI->PI to save $$
Josiah Strong
Inspired missionaries w/ book Our Country: Its Possible Future and its Present Crisis, encouraged Americans to spread their religion and values abroad to "backward" ppl
Big Sister
Blaine as SecState under Garfield and Harrison argued for this policy to rally Latin American nations behind US so US would get trade rights
Kipling
Coined idea of White Man's burden to "civilize" ppl abroad
dysentery, malaria, typhoid, yellow fever
Four top diseases affecting US troops
White man's burden
Idea coined by Kipling that westerners had duty to civilize foreigners
Yellow kid
Cartoon that was as sensationalist as the journalism
John Bull
GB rep who shrugged off Olney's message, denied that Monroe Doctrine was relevant, said Venezuela was none of US's business
Guantanamo
US military base in Cuba
Weyler
SP general called the "butcher" who put troublesome citizens in reconcentration camps
Leonard Wood
Led Rough Riders into Cuba
Dr. Walter Reed
Conducted experiments about disease, esp. yellow fever and mosquitoes, using human test subjects
Aguinaldo
Leader of Filipino insurgents who initially helped US to beat SP
China
Weak, manipulated and controlled by JP, GE, and RU in 1890s
Gloucester
US warship that docked on PR's Guanica harbor and liberated the island from SP
Dewey
US naval leader who invaded Philippines on 5/1/1898 and easy squashed SP fleet there. Made a national hero
Reconcentration camps
SP General Weyler put troublesome Cubans in these places so they couldn't help rebels
Hanna
Backer of McKinley who initially opposed war but was eventually supportive of new plundering of PI for his own profit
Samoan Islands
Islands in South Pacific near which US and GE navies almost fought in 1889
Cleveland
US president who, during Venezuela conflict, got Congress to create commission of experts to figure out best Venezuela/GB boundary; when he died, some Latin American countries liked what he did to protect them and lowered flags to half mast
Cervera
SP admiral who led fleet to Cuba. Said that his ships were in bad condition and "flirting with suicide"
William Jennings Bryan
When treaty to end Spanish-American war deadlocked, he stepped in to support it b/c he argued that US already had the islands, but we need treaty to formally end war and get back to life
Great Rapprochement
Term for new friendliness btwn GB and US after Venezuela
little brown brothers
Taft's nickname for Filipinos
Anti-Imperialist League
Opposed US expansion, had lots of powerful ppl. Wanted US to focus at home, thought it was hypocritical to violate "consent of governed" philosophy
Yellow journalism
Sensational journalism, encouraged expansion and blew events out of proportion at times to promote the newspapers, which were competing for readers
Monroe Doctrine
Venezuela crisis increased prestige of this document, which was cited by the US
Cleveland
President who uncovered truth about most Hawaiians not really wanted to be part of US, but there wasn't much he could do at this point. He was eventually criticized for trying to stem the new Manifest destiny
Colonies
These are what you get from imperialism, they make good foreign markets and raw material providers
Teller Amendment
When Congress effectively declared war to free Cuba, it included this clause that said that after US kicked out SP, Cuba would be free
Pearl Harbor
Military base in Hawaii that the gov there gave to US in 1887 before it was a colony
Theodore Roosevelt
2nd in command of Rough Riders, an important leading force, used connections to avoid physical standards and get his post
El Caney, San Juan Hill
Place in Cuba where Rough Riders famously charged, tho they took heavy casualties
Insurrectos
Rebels in Cuba who adopted a scorched-earth policy
Kaiser Wilhelm II
GE head of state, indirectly helped resolve Venezuela peacefully by distracting GB in Africa: he congratulated Boers in South Africa who captured an unauthorized GB raiding party
Italy
Country US almost fought after ppl form this country lynched in New Orleans 1892
McKinley
US president who didn't want war w/ Cuba, but US ppl did want war, and he decided to cave to will of ppl and ask Congress for war
Leonard Wood
Rough Rider leader, lead assault on yellow fever
Rickover
US admiral who led investigation into Maine accident in 1976 and said it was accident
Valparaiso
Port in Chile in which 2 American sailors killed in 1892, almost led to conflict, but Chileans finally agreed to pay indemnity
Clarke Airfield
Largest air base in Asia that was est. in Philippines by US gov't; closed in 1990s
Patting the eagle's head
Term for how GB regarded new era after the Venezuela crisis during which GB wanted to cultivate friendship w/ the US
Pan-American Conference
First one held in 1889, presided over by Blaine, meeting of ppl from across Americas for econ cooperation
Imperialism
Empire building - taking over land outside the country
Root
Took over War Dept., reorganized it, est'd War College. This all ultimately paid off for WWI
Jingoism
"We won't be disrespected by you foreign nations...we fight back!" or as the dictionary says: "Extreme nationalism characterized especially by a belligerent foreign policy; chauvinistic patriotism."
Twisting the lion's tail
Term for how the US acted during the century before the Venezuela crisis when it liked to spar w/ GB
Pribilof Islands
Islands of coast of Alaska, US and CAN argued about seal hunting here in 1893, arbitrated
Insular Cases
Supreme Ct. decisions that decreed that the Constitution didn't hold in faraway colonies
Philippine Commission
US gov in PI created by McKinley, headed by Taft
Hearst, Pulitzer
"yellow press/journalism" ppl who created excited about expansion abroad. These two ppl competed for top readership
Dupuy de Lôme
SP minister in Washington who criticized McKinley in a letter that was leaked to press and published by Hearst; forced to resign
Disease
#1 cause of death for American troops - 5k vs. 400 from shooting
Olney
SecState under Cleveland who told British that by fighting w/ Venezuela over border issue, they were violating Monroe Doctrine, so GB needed to agree to arbitration; basically informed GB that US was now in charge
Miles
General who led US troops at Puerto Rico
Queen Liliuokalani
Leader in Hawaii who alarmed white planters with some autocracy and was ousted by US troops
Blaine
SecState under Garfield and Harrison, argued for "Big Sister" policy to rally Latin American nations behind US so US would get trade rights
Maine
US battleship stationed in Cuba that exploded in 1898; US investigations said it was a mine, SP said it was an internal accident (which was correct, history seems to tell)
Steel navy
This military development encouraged oversees advances
Platt Amendment
US forced Cuba to put this clause in its constitution that prohibited Cuba from owing too much foreign debt and allowed US to step in w/ troops as necessary to help out and keep order. Also, let US get station(s) in Cuba, ultimately Guantanamo
Hearst
Publisher, "yellow press", sent Remington to Cuba to draw sketches that would make the situation seem bad
Hawaii
Pacific island that was usually friendly to America, got treaties with us, was eventually taken by US after tiny minority of white planters wanted control, finally annexed 1900 under McKinley and got citizenship and territorial status
McKinley
Approved formal annexation of Hawaii on July 7, 1898
The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783
Book in which Mahan argued that control of sea was key to world dominance, stimulated naval race and American cries for a storng navy
Citizen Kane
Considered the best movie of all time, based on Hearst
Venezuela
Had disputed border w/ British Guiana, wanted arbitrations but GB didn't want to budge, esp. after they found gold in disputed area; GB eventually budged and situation was arbitrated, tho GB got most of what they wanted
Hearst
One of richest men ever in US, owned big newspapers across country, built castle in CA
Splendid little war
Nickname for Spanish American war coined by Hay, indicative of US attitude and cockiness
Guam, Philippines, Puerto Rico
Three territories that US got from SP
Shafter
US general who led ill-prepared US troops into Cuba to drive out SP's Cervera
Taino
The native ppl from Cuba (the ____ Indians), enslaved by Spaniards in 1500s
John Long
Navy secretary who didn't dare leave his desk lest TR take control & issue orders;
Rough Riders Brigade
Regiment in US army that was ill-prepared, got name b/c it was a cavalry unit, led by Leonard Wood, Theodore Roosevelt was #2 in command
Long, Roosevelt
Two men from navy dept who were responsible for naval readiness of US

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