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What happened to the Vikings football player in 2001?
- Cory Stringer was a 27 year old and died
- 108.8 degrees, organs failed
- OSU graduate
- heat related problems
Which type of thermal hazard happens faster?
cold stress
What is heat stress?
- the net heat load that a worker is exposed to

heat loss < heat gain...experience heat stress
What is heat strain?
psysiological response to heat stress
What is heat load?
Metabolic heat

Environmental: machinery, air temp, clothing
What does a WBGT stand for & do?
Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
- actual heat load on workers in work setting
- air temp, humidity, radient heat
What are the levels of heat stress?
1. heat stress
2. heat stroke
3. heat exhaustion
What temperatures is a person at risk of heat stress?
80-85 degrees fahrenheit
What is the Q10 Effect?
1 degree C increase = 10% metabolic increase
What does ACGIH stand for and what do they do?
American Council of Governmental Hygenists

set limits on heat stress
can work up to oral body temp of 101 degrees
What are some of the sympathetic nervous system effects of heat stress?
vessel dilation, increased heart rate, less blood to muscles, sweating varies
What are some of the individual differences related to heat stress?
Age: older adults more at risk
Gender: females more at risk (more body fat)
Physical Fitness: sedentary more at risk
Alcohol: drink more, more at risk
What are some of the physical performance effects associated with heat stress?
fatigue, distraction, increase in unsafe behaviors, social & cognitive tunneling
What is PM and what does it involve?
Perceptual Motor

use of eye/hand coordination (dials/buttons)
What are the PM & Cognitive Effects of Heat Stress?
complex tasks requiring verbal reasoning, time sharing, difficult target detections, fine motor movements...

decrements start at 85 degrees, b'c of social/cognitive tunneling
Describe some priority framework solutions for Heat Stress...
Design Out: temp management, ventilation
Guard Against: shelter
Warn: visuals, coaches
Train: acclimation, rest breaks, hydration, buddy system
What is the heat stress 4 Day Rule for climate acclimation?
Day 1: 50% of time can be spent in climate
Day 2: 60%
Day 3: 80%
Day 4: 100%

monitor oral temp, sweating, visual
What temperature puts a person at risk to cold stress?
skin temp: -32 degrees Celsius or less

internal temp: 96.8 degrees Fahrenheit
What are some physiological effects of cold stress?
-vasoconstriction in skin, legs, arms
What are some of the consequences of the physiological effects from cold stress?
-lowered metabolic rate
What core body temperature puts person at risk of hypothermia?

risk of a coma?
91.1 degrees fahrenheit

86 degrees fahrenheit
What are some performance effects of cold stress?
Physical: loss of motor coordination, endurance, slower reaction time

Cognitive: research is inconclusive
Using the priority framework, describe hazard controls for cold stress.
Design: robotic equipment
Guard: rest breaks in warm areas
Warn: visual reminders
Train: observation & buddy system
What is the most important factor related to burns?

List some other factors.
* depth to which burn penetrates

location, age, amount of burned area
What is BSA?
body surface area

>75% usually fatal
Describe burn classifications by degree.
1st: minor (sunburn)

2nd: blisters, little/no scarring (210 degrees w/ 15s of contact)

3rd: dangerous/fatal, penetrates epidermis/dermis
Describe burns by degree & BSA percent
Minor: 1st degree, 2nd degree with <15% BSA, 3rd degree with <2% BSA

Moderate: 2nd degree 15%+ BSA, 3rd degree <10% & not on hands, feet, face

Critical: 2nd degree with >30% BSA, 3rd with >10% BSA, hands, feet, face
What is the OSHA definition of confined space?
spaces with an open top (or restricted opening) and small size restriction movement, air flow, task performance
What is another definition of confined space?
1. limited entry/exit
2. not intended for humans
3. work must be performed here
List some examples of confined space.
sewers, tanks, elevator shafts, trenches
What is a general confined space?
meets OSHA definition, entrapment hazard only
What is a permit required confined space?
meets OSHA defn, introduces other hazards (health & safety) besides entrapment

Examples: gases/vapors, engulfment by water, pathogens/insects/animals
Describe some source hazard controls for confined spaces
remove from populated work areas

inside building removed from populated work areas
Explain some path hazard control solutions for confined spaces
protective railing


visual warnings

Describe some person hazard controls for confined space.

permit for entry

written permit space program
Describe what happened in Farmington, WVa
huge mining explosion in 1968

killed 78

led to passage of MSHA
(Mining Safety & Health Admin)
Who does MSHA apply to?
anyone working in surface or underground mine

maintenance workers operating in these areas
What are the requirements of MSHA?
24 hours of training

3 content areas in first 8hours

Rest = job specific

written training plan & evaluation methods
What are some mining hazards?
cave-ins, explosions, toxicity from surface waste & gas buildup, coal dust, engulfment, drowning, falling rock, ground instability
Describe the structure of the Department of Labor.
OSHA, Armed Forces, & MSHA each fall separately under DOL

Memorandum of Agreement between OSHA & MSHA: share enforcement in certain situations
What was the name of the movie we had to watch outside of class?
Mountain Top Removal
Razing Appalachia
What is Black Lung Disease?
caused by continuous exposure to coal dust

scars tissue, difficult to breathe

1500 deaths/year from this disease
What role does OSHA play in Noise & Vibration?
-Monitor hearing hazards
-Engineering & Administration
-Personal hearing protection
-Eduction, training, persuasion
-Evaluation: guideline=ANSI
What is the auditory stimulus?
What is a decibel?
unit used to express sound intensity
What is a docimeter?
tool measuring sound level
What is the threshold of pain?
140 dB
What is the action level, intensity for hearing conservation programs?
85 dB
What is baseline audiometry?
sense of hearing before exposure, used for comparison
What is a threshold?
minimum stimulus energy to activate a nerve cell in inner ear
What is noise?
unwanted sound
What is attenuation?
degree to which noise is blocked
What is TTS2?
temporary threshold shift

at 2 min, get baseline, take measurement at t=1 & t=2
What are the 2 types of deafness?
1. conductive
2. nerve deafness (continuous noise exposure, destroys hair cells)
What are some general hearing loss labels?
-Presbycusis: due to aging
-Environmental Hearing Loss: Sociocusis, Occupational Hearing Loss
What are some physiological effects of noise & hearing loss?
threshold shift = nerve damage

activation of startle response

disrupts fine motor/perceptual ability
What is sympathetic activation?

Generalized Stress Syndrome: blasted with high noise
What are some cognitive effects of noise & hearing loss?
cognitive tunneling, perservation, over confidence, performance gaps, low verbal comprehension, masking of inner speech
What is the permissible exposure level?
100 dBA

hearing control program, engineering controls
What are aurals & circumaurals? What are their associated noise reduction ratings?
Aurals: earplugs, 18-23dB
Circumaurals: earmuffs, 20-30dB
What are the 3 Sense Areas in Vibration?
1. Propioceptors: in muscles, joints, tendons, organs, body mvmt & orientation

2. Kinesthetic Receptors: in joints, angle of arms, legs, neck, torso

3. Vestibular System: semicircular canals, sense of balance, movement
What characterizes vibration?
constant movement, frequency, intensity, duration, pattern
What are the long-term effects of vibration?
-vision/motor performance
-damage to peripheral nerves
-damage to female reproductive organs
-digestive system irritation
-back pain (LOWER BACK)
What is Reynaud's Syndrome?
hand-arm vibration syndrome

numbness, tingling, loss of sensation, difficulty with fine motor skills
Describe priority framework for vibration...
Design: better equipment
Guard: breaks, anti-shock gear
Warn: proper precautions
Train: education, correct posture/use
ear anatomy...
Describe how to insert an earplug...
Clean hands, roll, compress, pull outer ear out & up, insert, & hold
What happened with the Imperial Food Processing Plant on September 3, 1991?
fire inside chicken plant in NC

doors were locked, 25 died
What percent of fatalities are from fire?
What are some common causes of fire?
electrical, friction, chemical, arson, sabotage

if human cause, must show there was a motive
What are some conditions of fires?
combustable element (fuel), oxidizer, ignition catalyst, interaction
Explain the fire triangle...
Chemical reaction in center

Oxygen: triangle side black
Heat: triangle side orange
Fuel: triangle side red
What are the movement characteristics of fire?
Vertical Movement: stack effect (temp differences & drafts)

Horizontal Movement: mushroom effect (rise, spread, thicken)
What are the NFPA National Fire Code Regulations?
Consensus Standard: extinguishing systems

OSHA 1910 L: emergency plan, unobstructed egress, restoration of alarms after use
What does egress mandate?
sufficient exits, no obstruction, clearly marked, emergency alarm
Describe Hazard Control for Fires using the Location Framework...
Source: elminiate, confine, extinguish
Path: site planning, fire resistant clothing
Person: Life Safety Code, Panic Behavior, Warning/Training, Evacuation training
What is Ohm's Law?
current is function of electrical potential & resistance

path of least resistance
What is the relationship between resistance & conductivity?
low resistance/high conductivity - shock

high resistance/low conductivity - fires
What is an indirect electrical hazard?
electrical hazards may cause a startle reaction
What happens during an electrical shock?
body becomes part of circuit

point of entry and exit

3 types of exposure: person contacts both wires, one wire & ground, metallic part that has become "hot" with energized conductor
What are some regulations for electrical hazards?
electrical equipment free from hazards likely to cause death/injury

grounding devices may ONLY be used for grounding
What does NEMA stand for?
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
Describe the Location framework for electrical hazards
Source: shield, isolate, wire design (longer wire = greater resistance)
Path: insulation/sealing, grounding
Person: warn, train, LOTO
What is LOTO?
Lock Out Tag Out

Place locks on switch box to indicate system is disabled, no one can remove, tags indicate what is going on, nothing can be done until locks/tags removed
Describe Flammability in the Hazard Diamond
Susceptibility of material to burning


Rank: 0 (water) - 4 (propane gas)
Describe the Health Hazard in the Hazard Diamond
Type of possible injury


Rank: 0 (peanut oil) - 4 (hydrogen cyanide)
Explain reactivity on the hazard diamond
susceptibility of material to burning


Rank: 0 (liquid nitrogen) - 4 (TNT)
Explain Special Precuations on the Hazard Diamond
Variable content/Protective gear required


symbols used
What is one of the most frequent causes of workplace injury?
FALLS (2nd leading cause of death)

17% disabling

20% same surface falls
What are the 3 parts of the OSHA Fall Protection Standard?
D: falls from regular surfaces (stairs, same surface)
F: manlifts, scaffolding
R: special industries (construction)
What do "different surface" falling hazards include?
falling from elevated work areas

falling objects striking worker
How do people fall on different surfaces?
Loss of balance

Lack of guards

Visual distraction

What do walking hazards include?
trip & fall

stump & fall

step & fall

slip & fall
What is cognitive economy?
When the mind uses the least amount of energy as possible
What are some characteristics of same-surface falling?
landing slips cause backwards falls

take off slips cause forward falls
What is coefficient of friction?
cof between 2 surfaces equals the force needed to overcome friction of two materials rubbing against each other divided by force pressing the objects together

u = Fr/Fn
What is the difference between static & kinetic COF?
Static: object that is stationary on a relatively smooth/hard surface

Kinetic: object that is sliding on a relatively smooth, hard surface
Explain the range of COFs
0.2 (very slippery/very hazardous)
slippery/not hazardous
0.4 good traction
What are some suggestions for the priority framework for falling/walking hazards?
Design: use cranes, remove hazards
Guard: use barriers,
Warn: tie off areas, signs
Train: safety training, situation awareness
What are the 5 Strategies for preventing slips?
1. choose right material
2. retrofit existing surface
3. practice good housekeeping
4. require nonskid footwear
5. inspect surfaces frequently
At what height MUST workers receive training?
6 feet
What are some characteristics of material handling?
lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, throwing
What are material handling hazards?
strains: leading to back injuries

dropping objects on hands, feet, legs, other workers
What percent of workers' comp claims are related to back injuries?
What are proper lifting techniques?
1. Plan Ahead
2. Lift with legs, not back
3. Push, don't pull
What are some machine hazards?
crushing, shearing, puncturing, hot surfaces
What are some consequences of machine hazards?
fractures, lacerations, dimemberment, burns
Using location framework, how can machine hazards be prevented?
Source: automation, redesign
Path: safeguarding (eliminate contact, shields humans, ensures protection)
What are some requirements for safeguarding?
1. Prevent contact
2. Be secure & durable
3. Protect Against
4. Create no new hazard
5. Create no interference
6. Allow safe maintenance
What are the different types of safeguarding?
1. Prevent contact
2. Remain secure
3. Create no new hazards
4. Allow safe lubrication
5. Create no interference
6. Protect from falling objects
What are the different types of safeguarding systems?
1. POO Guards (point of operation)
2. Feeding/Ejection Systems
3. Robot Safeguards (work envelope)
What are the different types of POO guards?
Fixed Guards: permanent barrier

Interlocked Guards: shut down operation or remove human (pull back)

Adjustable: flexible
Why is it difficult to implement hazard control in agriculture?
unorganized locations infrastructure

informal structures

safety & health regs very broad
Major problem with agricultural equipment?
shields/guards removed
What are some factors leading to forklift incidents?
poor stacking, unstable loads, too heavy, lack of training, speed, improper backing/turning
What is technology?
tools designed from human knowledge used to achieve certain outcomes
How does technology affect safety?
work behavior/morale, attitudes, practices, relations
What is the future of Industrial Robot Systems?
"knowledge work" drives "new economy"

new demands for smart systems


corporate image
What are some problems with technology?
aging workforce
illiteracy: computer & functional
What are some ethical problems with technology?
reduce need for humans
workplace stress
cognitive deskilling & overload
What are some examples of technology?
electronic noses, controls, smart systems, online training, robotic arms
What are some consequences of technology use?
accommodation problem
lacrimation (dry eyes/tearing)
work stress
social pathology (burnout, meaninglessness)
Use the location framework to describe hazard controls for technology
Source: work design
Path: shield, isolate, work envelope
Person: training, understand human needs
What are the types of robotic accidents?
1. Impact/collision
2. Crushing/trapping
3. Mechanical part
4. Other (power/controls)
What are some sources of machine accidents?
1. Human Error
2. Control Error
3. Unauthorized access
4. Mechanical failures
5. Environmental sources
6. Power systems
7. Improper Installation

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