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Social Studiessss Chapter 27


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Cold War
after wwII the u.s and the soviet union were caught up in a new state of tension without actual fighting -it soon divided the world into opposing camps
how did the ussr defeat germany
it drove the germans out of the ussr and out of eastern europe
how did the ussr break their promise to the allies?
they promised to hold elections but instead the soviet dominated satellite/communist governemnts-were installed in every eastern european nation such as poland, hungary, romania, etc.
iron curtain
the way winston churchill described the communist takeover of these nations -separating them from the free world
where in western ruope were communist parties also active?
in italy and communist rebels were fighting for control of greece
truman doctrine
truman grew concerned about soviet expansion-in 1947 he asked congress for $400 million in military and economic aid for countries figting communism such as greece and turkey.
george marshall
secretary of state-made the marshall plan
marshall plan
in fear that hungry and homeless people might support communist revolutions, g. marshall proposed a large scale plan to help europe rebuild its economy. it provided $12 billion in aid to western european countries. as a result, w.e. regained its strength and remained democratic.
what did the allies do to germany after wwII
divided it into 4 zones (british, french, american, and soviet) with the intent of eventual reunification. berlin was also divided among the allies but the city was located deep inside the soviet zone
what did stalin refuse to do after this
berlin was located deep inside the soviet zone-stalin regused to allow the russian or soviet section of germany reunite with other zones
what did stalin do when the state of west germany was formed from the other sections
he began a blockade preventing contact with berlin from west germany
what was the united states' response to stalins blockade?
the u.s. began a massive airlift to supply west berlin with food, fuel, and other goods-planes landed or took off every 3 minutes for a year
what happened when stalin ended the blockade?
germany and berlin remained divided-the soviet zone became the communist German Democratic Republic or East Germany
United Nations
came into being in 1945 when 51 original nations ratified its charter-
general assembly
every member of the U.N. has a seat in the GENERAL assembly where world problems could be discussed.
security council
part of U.N.--dealt with threats to the peace
what were the greatest successes of the u.n and what proved to be more difficult?
-greatest sucesses: fighting hunger and disease and in improving education around the world
-difficult: preventing wars, although some crises have been kept from becoming full scale wars
what war did the u.n. play an active role in?
korean war
North Atlantic Treay Organization (NATO)
-made to help defend the nations of Western Europe from communist aggression.
Warsaw Pact
in response to NATO, the soviet union formed its own military alliance w/ eastern european nations.
what happened in 1956 when hungary tried to overthrow its soviet dominated communist government?
the soviets sent its army to crush the revolt
what nations demanded their independence from european colonial powers after wwII?
nations in asia and africa-
philipines independence
in 1946, the u.s. gave the philipines its independence-communists rebels later threatened its governmnet but they were defeated
indias independence
became independent from brtain was divided into two countries, creating pakistan. remained neutral in the Cold War and Pakistan became an ally of the u.s.
indochina (vietnam) independence
fought for its independence from france
from who did the nations of SE Asia try to become independent?
britain and the netherlands
how many new africcan nations were formed in the 50's and 60's?
what happened to these nations that became independent during the cold war?
they became pawns in the struggle between communist and noncommunist powers as the u.s. and the u.s.s.r. tried to prevent each other from gaining influence
how did events in asia affect the u.s?
the cold war focuses even more attention on asia regarding the possible spread of communism
chiang kai-shek
rule of china in the 1940's
mao zedong
leader of the chinese communists
how did the u.s. try to help chiang?
the u.s. gave chiangs government millions in aid but corruption had causes a lack of support-in 1949, the chinese communists pushed Chiang to flee to taiwan and the communists set up the people's republic of china
how did the korean war begin?
After WWII, korea became free from japan and was divided at the 38th parallel. north korea was governed by communists supported by the soviet union and south korea had a non communist government supported by the u.s. in june 1950, north korean troops invaded south korea. president truman asked the u.n. to send u.n. troops to stop the invasion. the secuirty council agreed since the ussr was boycotting the u.n. and did not veto the action
general macarthur
leader of the u.n. force in korea-lanuched a daring counterattack-landed at inchon behind north korean lines. the north koreans were forced back by this maneuver. macarthu pushed further northward and the hcinese communists crossed the border into n. korea. macarthur and the u.n. forces were pushed back into south korea.
why was macarthur fired?
by march 1951, macarthur was concinced that the war could be won only if the UN forces could cross the broder into china. truman believed that an american attack on china could start a new world war. macarthur publicly complained about being held back. angrry that macarhur was defying orders, truman fired him. many were angered by this and criticized truman. Gneeral Ridgeway replaced macarthur.
how did the korean war end?
peace talks began in 1951, but there was little progress. the two sides finally agreeded to a cease-fire agreement in 1953. the border remained at the 38th parallel. more than 54,000 americans had been killed and more than 2 million koreans and chinese lost their lives in the conflict.
why were there fears of communist at home (one reason)
the ussr had its own atomic weapon in 1949
ethel and julius rosenberg
were executed for giving atomic secrets to the soviets
senator joseph mccarthy
made many reckless claims about the influence of communists in the u.s. government and the army. fear and suspicion spread across the nation. government committees investigated communist influence and inviduals underwnet wuestioning. many lost their jobs and were unjustly accused. eventually, mcCarthy lost support and the Senate passed a resolution condemning his conduct.
in what ways did the u.s. compete during the cold war?
they competed with missles and atomic weapons-both developed hydrogen bonds
the ussr's first satellite in space in 1952-causes panic in u.s. over space program and science education
Explorer I
the u.s.'s first satellite -1958
fallout shelters
shelters built n/c of people frightened over atomic attack-air raid drills in schools
why did the government take steps to prevent unemployment after world war II?
millions of americans had been employed in military or war industries
two steps by government to prevent unployments:
1) GI BIll of rights-loans to veterans for businesses, colleges, and unemployment insurance
2) governmnet spending continued b/c of cold war-new weapons, large armies, etc.
why did the economy expand?
great demand-americans wanted new houses, cars, and clothing
baby boom
huge number of births between 1946 and 1961 causes economy to expand-causes by low birth rates of 30's and 40's causes by war and depression and imporvemnts in medicine
prices and wages rose-no longer any government controls-many strikes
taft-hartley act
controlled unions-vetoed by Truman-court order can delay strikes-"closed shops"were banned
closed shop
businesses where only union members are allowed
truman election 1948
faced tough election in 1948 -thomas dewey was expected to win but truman squeaked past dewey
fair deal
truman's reforms-raised minimum wage-expanded social secuirty-ended segregation in the military
1952 election
dwight eisenhower (Rep.) vs. Adlai Stevenson (Dem)-Eisenhower became President-believed in limited control over economy-did enact national programs for highway building
how did the suburbs grow?
pent up demand-new families-returning veterans-suburbs gew 40X faster than cities-mass production of houses-william levitt-Levittown
-cars more important-more cars sold
-new highways, shopping centers, new gorm of shopping now in center of towns
television impact on american life
1950- 4 million homes w/ TVs
1960-45 million homes had TV's
news, sports, political conventions and entertainment
-children's shows-ex. howdy doody
-comedy- "I Love You"
-major influence
Interstate Highway Act
called for a network of high-speed roads linking the entire nation.
what kind of segregation did african americans face?
in the north, many qualified african americans could not get jobs that paid well. they were often forced to live in segregated neighborhoods-in the south jim crow laws separated the races-these laws kept blacks out of public places like restaurants, movie theaters, hotels, and laundromats
how did those seeking an end to segregation win a small sucess in 1948
president truman ordered the armed forces to stop segregating blacks into separate units. during the korean war, blacks and whites fought together in one unit
poll taxes
fees a person had to pay in order to vote-fair deal rejected this bill
civil rights movement
african american leaders continued to work for equality-first efforts were known as the civil rights movement
brown vs. the board of education of topeka
oliver brown of topeka kansas decided to challenge the kansas law. he asked the local school board to let his faughter, linda, attend the all-white school near their home rather than the distant segregated school that she was assigned to. the school board refused brown's request. with the help of of the naacp, brown filed a suit against the school board. the case reached the supreme court. the supreme court ruled in brown's favor, and ordered all schools to be desegregated
thurgood marshall
brown's lawyer who argued that "separate" could never be "equal" Segregated schools, he said, could never provide equal education. bt rhwie very nature, segregated schoools violated the fourteenth amendment, which gave "equal protection" to all citizens
Cheif Justice Earl Warrenn
Chief Justice in the brown case
women from the NAACP met at midnight to compose a letter to boycott riding on buses for black people-
montgomery improvement association
dr. martin luther king head the organization the black people of montgomery were forming to continue the boycott-king and others were arrested-king insisted that his follows limit their actions to civil disobediance
how did the boycott end?
it attracted national attention-in 1956 the supreme court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional. the montgomery bus company agreed to inegrate the buses and also to hire black bus drivers.
civil disobedience
nonviolent protests against unjust laws.

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