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PE 201 Final


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Greek Games
-Zappas~ rich merchants
-Established Olympic Trust Fund
-1859~combination fair, exhibition, athlete
Wenlock Games
-Dr. Brooks~ passionate about PR in schools
-Town in Wenlock
-Track & Field
-Local athletes
-opening parade
-relationship w/ coubertin
Baron de Coubetin
-Born 1863
-French aristocracy
-College: focused on sport edu.
-Edu. through teh physical
-Intensity patriotic
~sport promoted physical health
Olympic Games
-Coubertin visits England and the U.S, meets sloane in the U.S.
-Sport is the way to bring Nations together
-Hopes for French ppl
-international coference for the study & prorogation of the Principle Amateurism
AT teh conference
-last item on agenda
-voted olympic games back
-IOC, 14 members selected by coubertin
-Paris v. Athens
-he had to convince the Greeks
Rebirth of the Olympic games
coubertin responsible for:
-opening & closing ceremonies
-olympic flag
-Motto= Faster, Higher, Stronger
-opposed women in sport
-no financial awards
1896 Games- Athens
-10 long days
-very few team sports
-Averoff helped w/ building facilities
Paris 1900
-internaitonal Expo
-side show
-may 20-sept2 (long time- not a short specific time frame)
-terrible facilities
-1330 athletes, 22 countries
-Sunday compitions (americans couldn't compete on Sundays)
**Ray Erway
-10 times olympic champion
-american~grew late
-4 gold medals
**1st female competition (lawn tennis)
St. Louis 1904
-political, ppl didn't want to go to st. louis
-worlds fair
-too distint
-july 1- Oct. 10 (still really spread out)
-12 countries 655 athletes
-story about cuban (car brought him most of the way, he's not dirty as the end, he admits he cheats)
Stockholm 1912
-helped firmly estab. teh return of the games
-huge crowds
-2547 athletes, 28 countries
-Jim thorpe(movie)
-commercialize him
-almost single-handedly raised the bar
Chamonix 1924
-1st winter games
-same country host, paris did summer games
-293 athletes, 16 countries
Los Angeles 1932
-olympic village
-Babe Didrikson
-we put on a show, opening & closing ceremonies
Berlin 1936 (hitler)
Propaganda: Huge $ spent
-olympic flag
-4066 atheletes from 49 countries
-america questioned whether they should go
babe didrikson
-2 world records
-greatest of her time
-golf was her main sport
-played basketball, tenis, track, volleyball also
The growth of Sport
-2 things necessary for Growth
1.time ( more tech=more time)
-2nd-3rd generation(your dad played so you played)
-the car
-local sport: local media, tie to educational system
-sport goes from reform tool to a product in a consumer culture
-shift from protestant work(hard work) ethic to an affluence (easier)
-sport as a vehicle for entertainment
Amateur sport
-"sport for all" philosophy
-goal of health through gymnastics to character
-sportsmenship through sport
-Distinction b/t amateur & pro athletes
-upper class- equestrian, golf
-middle class-baseball, football
-american tendency to organize
-baseball, NCAA ect.
-Immigrants saw sport as an Americanizing force
-Heroes born through tobacoo cards & sports journaling
-baseball is king
-sport not a major force in culture but fast becoming one
Baseball 1900-1950
-1901 american league formed
-no world series in 1904
-dead ball era
-ty cobb, Honus Wagner, Walter Johnson, Cy Young
-1919 Black Sox Scandal (world series was rigged)
-Judge Landis saves baseball (suspended the players of the scandal for life and racism)
-usher the Babe Rith Era
-Intercollegiate Athletes Association of US
-Roosevelt, Mc Cracken- NYU
-did a study on deaths in football
-renamed NCAA in 1910
-educational role v. reforcement
-hurt progess for women
Intercollegiate sport for women
-separate departments
-avoid evils of mens athletics
-6d to professionalism
-training for a few at the expense for many
-it was unsocial
-professional coaches
-Greatest good for greates number
-they organized sport days
-they organized sport days
-take a group of women- meet w/ other colleges & play sports (not as a school team but mixed)
-women protested women being in the olypmics, they thought those women were sellouts (didn't want women to be masculine i.e babe didr.)
Babe Ruth
-1st athlete to realize it was a stage
-he was an international celebrity
-he brought ppl back to the ball park
-owners didn't like him (very independent and asked for more $)
-called him black b/c of his features
-rough childhood, was in an orphange
-red sox "bought him"
-red sox gave him to the Yankees
-he ran wild in NY
-said he needed 2 women each night
-loved children
babe review
-he defined the birth of a sports nation
-he saved baseball from the black sock scandal
-played during a time where athletes became intertainers- he changed it
-one of the 1st athletes to understand his worth
-defines the 20s era, times of excess
-the industrial revolution purged much leisures from our lives
-with the emphasis on work; positive & negative values were placed on time
-work=production; time well spent
-leisure=unproduction time; idleness
-defining leisure as free time
-industrialization divided our time
- leisure became asociated w/ unobligated time
-defined leisure in terms of freedom from rather than freedom to
-convient way to define leisure
-problems w/ this def.
-is there ever time w/out obligation
-having extra times (not times)
-free time can be used negatively & positive
-separates our lives into compartments
-defines who we are
-around 1900- an attempt to used "directed play as an answer to the problems created by the impact of economic forces upon society and attendant social structures"
directed play
-games (dodgement..), sport, intermeral games, playground activities
-rec. does not come out of play
parks and playgrounds
-intitially the playground movement $ the parks movements were est. as 2 different entities
-2 movements came together during the reform park era in early 20th century
america at play
-play and child dev.
-play spaces
-outdoor play for young children
-public recreation
social problems and teh play movement
-reconstruct moral values
-socail conditions
-commercail recreation
***Play has a greater shaping power over the character & nature of man than any other activity
-Luther Gulick
sand gardens- America's first playgournd
-Dr. Marie Zakrezewska
-Bostons 1st sand gardens were constructed in cities poortest districts
Early playground v. parks
-parks wer pleasureing ground- the countryside in the middle of the city, passive recreation
-playgournds were to build muscle & morals
-in early rec. movement ppl either went to parks or playgrounds
Public Recreation
-intial support came from private funds
-involmetn w/ settlement housed (ex. hullhouse- where immigrants came and lived)
-municipal support begins around 1900

"play for grown ppl is recreation- the renewal of life. For children it is growth- the gaining of life"-Joseph Lee
"We do not cease playing b/c we grow old; we grow old b/c we cease playing" J.L
Joseph Lee=father of the playground movement (10 yrs studied playgrounds)
-wealthy Bostian
-President of the playground Assoc. of America (1910-1927)
Parks & Playgrounds
-connection b/t parks and schools, park staff used school yards
-playground movement institutionalized in municipal parks
-playground leaders hired to offer programs in parks
-recreation centers as cleaning houses to deal with neighborhood problems thru collaboration w/ a variety of municipal agencies and settlement houses
-free play needed to become more organized- kids have a naturally sinful nature
need for recreation workers
-play areas are not enough
-teaching children to play
-qualificaitons of the play leader
-the model cirrculum
swimming pools
-link to personal hygeine
-providing of suits
-segregated by sex ( hours of pools)
-popular, 1 hours for marchingin, recieve suit and towel, changing clothes, showers, swim, dress
-dance halls, film industries, amusement parks (coney island)
-alcohol and other vices, moral decay
-spectators (not participating) ex. films
Jackie Robinson
-racial integration of professional sport
-born in Georgia, raised in Pasadenia
-Ucla, 4 Sport
-Army civil rights
- Kansas city monarchs
-handpicked by ricky
-1st black in baseball hall of fame
-forcefull off the field-later years
-forces working against
-"Do you really believe they're human"
-black baseball league employed many black people
-white stadium owners don't want to integrate b/c they make $ even when their team away
-black teams had a good deal
Pe after WWII
-Increase in leisure
-increase in Tech. and industry
-civil rights- equal access
-women in work force & have "work sporting events"
-increase in understanding sport and more important exercise
-team orienated activities, thought sport was a great training ground for teamwork (for war...)
2 things we learned about P.E. thru WWII
1. we found that most of our draftees in shape , boot camp was used to get them in shape
2.we won the war by our shoulders concept of team work and fighting together- also the ability to assume leadership when the leader was killed
-unit draftees
-1953, Krues Weber Test- 53% failed
-Eisenhower-presidents council on Youth fitness
-1957-AAPHER Youth Fitness Test
-youth performed poorley
-1961-suggestions for schools
-identity underdeveloped, 15 min. of vigorous test
(Test question)
-president Elect Kennedy
-soft american
-gov. problem
-white house committee of health Ed.
-promotion of sport part & physical fitness
-changes name from Youth Fit. to physical fitness
-Pres. Johnson establishes President Physical Fitness Award
Aims for PE
-military aim (out of shape- want fitness)
-scientific aim
-ACSM- 1954 (medicine type "view" of sport)
-social aim
-sport education
Harvard Fatigue Lab 1927-1947
-DB Hill
-the effect of the environment on exercise (heat, cold, altitude, terrain)
-the biggest contribution made by the HFL were in the scholars that the HFL produced (they went toward exercise science-called scholars)
1960's Exercise Pysical
-dev. of electronic analysis-measure gasses-study metab. easier
-until the 60's most studies focused on whole body response
-as tech. has increased the ability to examine the subcellular has changed teh field
Jogging Fad- Exercise Phys. to the masses
-the ability of exercise to effect health and the ageing process
-1968 kenneth Cooper wrote "Aerobics"
-Aerobic exercise is the best for cardiovascular training
-pts. system, based on the intesity and duration of the activity
-monitoring heart rate and oxygen consumption
-30 pts. males/ 24 pts. females
-what he did, was take all the info. from the harvard fatigue lab and all the scientists, and he made it understandable to the masses
Title IX- 1972
(huge- not to discriminate by gender)
1958- Joseph Penfold
-director of conservation of wildlife, Father of conservation
-fought against polution
-urged congress to do the following
-to preserve, develope, and assure accessibility
-to determine the types and locations of suck resources for future generations
-starts with conservation
2nd recreation revolution
federal involvement stimulated series of advancements in rec.
"Mission 66"
-US natl parks service- 10 yrs restoration and improvement
-operation outdoors
recreation activites
(test ?)
-factos-mechanization of Recreation
-car, camper, tents
-40 hr work week
-outboard motor
-Result: tremendous strain on recreational facilities
Sport and PE (1960-1965)
-vietnam war
-impacted EVERYTHING (ex. education, everyone enrolled in college to skip draft. grade inflation
-energy crisis
physical ed. university level
-combined department
-elective v. required (core pe)
-sub disciplines
-recreational activities
Professional Sports
-sport marketing (rais $ to attract best players)
-amateur v. professional
-free agency
-agency clause: sign w/ team always w/ a team
The history Race and Sport
-despite discrimination against a.a. throut history, in NA they have played a sig. role in the rise and developement of modern sport
-exclusion B4 civil war
-break thrus following emancipation proclamation
-racial seg. b/t WWI and WWII
-racial integration
women v. aa in sport
(t ?)
-it was said, a.a. are viewed as consumers
-plantaion sport- black players, white coaches and spectators.
Jim thorpe
minority, amateurism issues, Father of NFL
Jesse Owens
war movement, spokesman for AA athletes
Muhammad Ali
1st to stand up against establishment, gained worldwide fame, civil rights movements
rebirth of olympics
-natl pride, peace, france
-athens, berlin, 1924 winter olympics
what led to explosion of sport
-sport tied to education
early rec
-father of rec= joseph lee
-playground movement, 20 yr study
-away from playground, directed play, sand pile
-2nd revoltion
-great depression creatd Fa
-pen fold, recreation outside (outboard motors)

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