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History2 2


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Asian Imperialism
Europe vs. Japan vs. USA
African Imperialism
U.K. and France vs. Germany vs. Italy
Moroccan Crisis
Germany tried to take over Morocco from France 1905-06, 1911
Pan Slavism
Self-determination against Austria-Hungary
Pan Germanism
German Agressive Nationalism
Effects of Pan Germanism
Defensive French Nationalism
Defense quickly turned to offense
Triple Alliance
Central Powers
-Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Triple Etente
-Rest of the World
June 28, 1914
Assassination of Austrian Archduke and his wife in Bosnia by Princip of the Black Hands
July 6
Austria-Hungary's response
Germany's blank check for war
July 23
Austria-Hungary's ultimatum
Serbia replies incorrectly
July 28
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, bombs Belgrade
Serbia looks to Russia
July 28-30
Russia mobilizes troops
July 31
German ultimatum to Russia
France supports Russia
August 1
Germany consults France and declares war on Russia
French-Russian friendship
-Same alliance
-common enemy
-France helped Russia a lot
-Schlieffen Plan-Germany would border two enemies
August 2
German ultimatum to neutral Belgium
August 3
Germany declares war on France
August 4
Germany invades France thru Belgium
U.K. declares war on Germany
Europe mobilizes for war
Homefront Situation in 1916
Civilian Military Mobilization
Western/Eastern Front in 1916
Stalemate-no one winning
Trench Warfare
War of Attrition-wearing one side down
North Sea in 1916
U.K. Blockade
German Counter-Blockade
Battle of Jutland (May 31-June 1)-Germany never recovered
Turning Point
When and why US entered
April 6, 1917-neutralized u-boats
German unrestricted warfare (Feb. 1, 1917)
Russian Revolutions
March and November 1917

Lenin negotiates for peace
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (3/3/1918)
Russia drops out of war
German reinforcements to the Western front
Reinforcements repulsed by allies is Sept. 1918
Austria-Hungary and Turkey Disintegrate
Oct. and Nov. 1918
German Surrender
Nov. 11, 1918
Ending the war politically
Woodrow Wilson's 14 points
Paris Peace Conference
Jan. 18, 1919
Winners were invited-32 nations
The big six
The big three
Woodrow Wilson-US
Lloyd George-Britain
George Clemenceau-France
Absent from PPC
Versailles Treaty
June 28, 1919
Germany Lost in VT
Territory-overseas, alsace-lorraine, poland
Military Cuts-800,000-100,000
-demilitarized Rhine Land
Reparations-5 billion $$
League of Nations per VT
sponsored by US, but they never joined
-Territorial Integrity
-Collective Security
-Economic Sanctions
Treaty with A-H and Turkey
Nation building in Eastern Europe
States of the Russian Empire
Baltic States
Minority Problems in E. Europe
-Ethnic and Religious Minorities
PPC and Non-European World
Middle East
African German colonies
Asian and Pacific German colonies
All placed under L of Nations
Russian Revolutionaries
inspired by liberal and marxist ideas
-liberal-freedom, elections
-marxist-communism over capitalism
Revolution of 1905
Bloody Sunday-Liberal
Started in Petrograd led by G. Gapon
Triggered by Russo-Japanese War
Jan-Oct 1905
October 1905 Manifesto
Czar Nicholas II would have advisors and elections
Throw out at the beginning of WW1
Revolution of March 1917
Started in Petrograd
Bread Riots
Rasputin vs. Tsarina-Czar Nicholas II abdicates thrown
Creation of Provisional Gov't
Provisional Government
Liberals and socialists
Menshevik Marxists (workers)
Socialist Revolutionaries (peasants)
Revolution of November 1917
Bolshevik Marxists challenge provisional gov't
Winter Palace Coup-Nov. 6-9 1917
Menshevik vs. Bolshevik Marxists
Bolshevik was more unified, organized, and informed
Russia 1918-1920
Allie Intervention
Civil War-whites vs. reds (bolsheviks)
Invasion of Poland
Objectives of Russia's Economic Change
Capital Accumulation-invest in capital goods over consumer goods
War Communism
Gov't intervention in economy
State of Peasants
New Economic Policy
Mixed Economy
State of Peasants
Lenin's social and political reforms
Lenin dies
Stalin kills Trotsky and takes over
Collectivization and the 5 year plan
Stalin revolution
Gov't intervention in economy
State and collective farms
Killin of Kulaks-wealthy farmers
Rapid industrialization
Background of Mexican Revolution
Land and Liberty-not enough land
Crisis of the cities-not enough jobs
Church with land and state
Caudillo Rule-Diaz
Revolts of 1910
Madero, Pancho Villa, Zapata
10 yrs of unrest
2 million deaths
Huerta suceeds Madero
Caranza suceeds Huerta
Francisco Madero
Urban Middle Class
-power sharing
-economic opportunities
Pancho Villa
N. Mexico-civil war
Anti-foreign cowboys and small farmers
Emiliano Zapata
S. Mexico
Peasants and lower classes
-land and legal reform
Constitution on 1917
Most liberal in world
Land Reform
Church-sep. from land and state
Foreign Corporations
Improved working and living conditions
Nationalist Revolution in China
Decline of the Manchu Dynasty after the opium wars
Rise of Republican Movement
Nationalist intellectuals inpired by US
Republican Ideaology
Indutrial Socialization
Land Reform
Founding Father of Republican Movement
Sun Yat Sen
Republican Supporters
China Political Party
Koumintang (KMT) National People's Party (1905)
10 unsuccessful revolts
11th revolt
Oct. 10, 1911-Feb. 12, 1912
Ended Manchu Rule
Boy emperor abdicated thrown
Difficult unity and war lords
May 4th Movement
Intellectual Movement
Originated at Peking University
Wanted Shantung back from Japan
Ordinary Chinese wanted in Universities
Rise of Chiang Kai Shek
Purge of Communism
Northern Expansion of 1927-no more need for Russia
Chinese Communism
Nationalism was too slow
Inspired by Russia
Defense against Japan
Chinese Communist Party
Led by Mao Tse Tung-Marxist
Supported by peasants-S. China
The Long March
100,000 people
6,000 miles
370 days
Communists New Base
N.W. China, Yenan, near Russia
-came into power in 1949, kicked Nationalists to Taiwan
Anti-Colonial Reform in India
Led by Gandhi
Social and Economic Misery
Political Repression
-Amritsar Massacre
Studied law in U.K., India, and S. Africa
Fought British Imperialism
Hindu Caste System-help Harijans
Gandhi's confrontations with the British
Satyagrahas of 1920-1922 (non-violent)
Great Salt March of 1930 (large saty..)
Swadeshi(boycott) cloth and cotton not made in India
India Act of 1935
Electoral Process-base for elections
Gandhi's Struggles
Hindu/Muslim divisions
Anti-colonial Reform in Africa
Increased during the inter-war years
Pan Africanism
Aimed at the unity of Africans everywhere (diaspora)
Originated in USA led by Blyden, DuBois, and Garvey. After WWII Nkrumah and Sekoutoure took over
Political Agitation in Non-White Areas
Egypt-The Wafd (1918)
Gold Coast-A.R.P.S. (1899)
W. Africa-NCBWA (1920)
Political Repression in White Settler Areas
Land grabbing
Forced mine and plantation labor
Low wages
Repression in S. Africa
Majority-Blacks, Colored, Asians
Struggle for wealth
Middle East and Interwar years
conflicting wartime agreements
MacMahon-Husayn Correspondence
Husayn ruled Mecca
MacMahon-British high commision in Egypt
Promised middle east independence after WWI
The Sykes Picot Agreement
U.K. and France conspired to partition the M. East
-U.K. got Palestine and Iraq
-France got Syria and Lebanon
The Balflour Declaration
Balflour-British Foreign Secretary
Establish Jewish state in arab Palestine
Supported by Zionists
Creation of Isreal (1948)
Schlieffen Plan
Attack France with a lot of power, minimal power elsewhere

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