This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.



undefined, object
copy deck
Number of naturally occuring elements
Second most common element in the universe
Most abundant element on Earth
Elements w/ atomic # greater than ___ do not exist in nature. They must be created in laboratories or nuclear reators
The representative elements
representative elements includes metals,nonmetals,highly reactive elements,hardly reactive elements,solids,liquids,and gases
The similarity of elements in a group
same number of valence electrons
What determines the chemistry of an elment
# and location of its valence electrons
Valence electrons of representative elments are in what orbitals
s and/or p orbitals
Why are the properties of elements within a group similiar but not identiacal?
different #s of nonvalence electrons
What happens as the atomic number increases w/in a group
as new lvls of elects are added, the atomic radius increases and the shielding effect increases
A lower ionization energy makes what easier
the losing of electrons
metals tend to ___
lose electrons
the _____ the ionization energy, the more reactive the metal
for a group of metals, reactivity _____ as the atomic number increases
nonmetals tend to ___
gain electrons
the ____ the ionization energy of a nonmetal, the more reactive the nonmental
for a group of nonmetals, reactivity ____ as the atomic number increases
the lightest element in a group is the ___ representative
the close relationships between elements in neighboring groups
diagonal relationships
Group 1A 1 ve shares many properties w/ 7A
Who discovered hydrogen
Henry Cavendish in 1766
The universe contains more than __% hydrogen by mass
How many naturally occurring H isotopes are there
3: protium deuterium tritium
Heavy water
1.water that contains deuterium 2.uses in nuclear reactors to keep the chain reaction going 3.slowes down the neutrons produced during nuclear fussion
H's ___ ve explains its unusual set of metallic and nonmetallic properties
When a H atom acts like a ____, it gains an electron and achieves the stable electron configuration of helium
When H reacts w/ a nonmetal, it acts like a ___.
H can be produce in the lab by what 3 ways
when a metal reacts w/ an acid when electricity is used on water when water reacts w/ methane
Major industrial use of H is in the production of ____.
H also is used to convert liquid vegetable oil into ____ fats such as shortening
Lye is the active ingrediant in ______
drain cleaners
Why are group 1A metals called alkali metals?
when they react w/ water to form alkaline solutions
Alkali metals easily lose a ve and for an ion w/ a ___ charge
Properties of Alkali metals
1.soft enough to cut w/ a knife 2.highly reative 3.lab samples are stored in oil to prevent reaction w/ oxygen in air 4.Good conductors of heat and electricity
Lithium is the ____ reactive of the alkali metals
Lithium is more closely related to ____ (b/c of diagonal relationship)
Uses of Lithium
1.long-lasting batteries 2.used in dehumidifiers to absorb H20 3.Lithium carbonate strengthens glass and treats bipolar disorders
Alloys of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are used for itms such as airplane parts because of ____, yet _______
strength, lightweight
a solid solution
most abundant alkali metals
sodium and potassium
used in _____ vapor lamps and as a heat exchanger in nuclear reactors
Potassium has ____ industrial uses because of its greater reactivity and expense to produce
Humans and other vertebrates must have ___ and ____ in their diets b/c biological functions are controlled by ___ and ___ ions.
sodium, potasium
___ ions are the most common positive ions w/in the cells
____ ions are the most common positive ions in the fluid that surrounds the cells
When a nerve cell is stimulated, ____ ions flow into the cell and the ___ ions flow out
sodium potassium
the most common sodium compound
sodium chloride
____ chloride serves as a salt substitute for people whose intake of sodium must be limited
Potassium compounds are used for ____ and ______
fertilizers and fireworks
most reactive alkali metals
rubidium, cesium, and francium
rubidium, w/ a melting point of ____, melts on a hot day
40 degrees C
Francium, the ____ reactive alkali metal, is a rare radioactive element
Group 2A form compounds w/ ____, called oxides
Oxides of group 2A, when mixed w/ water they form _______ solutions except beryllium oxide
Alkaline earth metals are shiny solids that are ____ than alkali metals
Alkaline earth metals lose their ___ ves to form ions w/ a _+ charge
when exposed to ____, alkaline earth metals form a thin oxide coating
most compounds of alkaline earth metals do not dissolve easily in _____
1.lightest group of 2A 2.found combined w/ Al,Si, and O 3.used to moderate neutrons in nuclear reactors 4.used in alloy in tools to prevent sparking
Beryllium essential element for humans (bones) 2.found mainly combined w/ C & O
Calcium carbonate
1.main ingredient in limestone, chalk, and marble the skeletons of coral 3.used in antacids and as abrasive in toothpaste
hard material used to polish, smooth, or grind a softer material ex. emery boards and sandpaper
formed when calcium carbonate decomposes
plays a role in the manufacture of steel, paper, and glass
used in wastewater treatment plants, devices that remove pollutants from smokestacks, and mixed w/ sand and water to form mortar
abundant metal that can be formed into almost any shape
alloys of ___ w/ aluminum and zinc are much lighter than steel but equally strong
oxide of ___ has such a high melting point that it is used to line furnaces.
each chlorophyll molecule contains a _____ ion
_____ ions play a key role in muscle function and metabolism
when large quantities of calcium and magnesium ions are found in the water supply
hard water
____ gives some fire works their crimson color
colorful ___ compounds are used in paints and some types of glass ,and is also used as a diagnostic tool for internal medicine
____ atoms emit alpha, beta, and gamma rays
Group 3A
the boron group
Boron, aluminum, gallium, and induium lose _ ves to form ions w/ _+ charge
Thallium has similar properties to alkali metals, and loses only the p ve to form ions w/ a _+ charge
1 gallium and indium can also form ions w/ a 1+ cahrge
least representative of group 3A combines w/ silicon oxides to form special glass(w/stands extreme temps)
main source of boron is a complex compound of boron called
1/2 of world's supply of ___ comes from a large deposit in California's Mojave Desert
used as a cleaning agent and as fireproof insulation
a form of boron nitride is the ___ hardest known material
msot abundant metal and 3rd most abundant elament in Earth's crust usually combined w/ O or Si
more cost effective to recycle than to remove it from its ore
aluminum oxide is the major compound in _____, used as an abrasive, to strengthen ceramics, and in heat-resistant fabrics
ruby and sapphires, are crystals of _____ oxide w/ traces of other metals
compound ____ sulfate is used in antiperspirants and to remove suspended particles during water purification
____ can literally melt in your hand, used in some thermometers b/c it remains a liquid from 30-2403 degrees C
___ arseenide produces an electric current when it absorbs light, used in semiconductor chips, 10x better than silicon chips
____ nitride, used to produce a blue laser for dvds, 3x the storage on dvds and better speed and resolution, can be used in medical devices to make cheaper
Group 4A
The Carbon Group
contain in most cell substances has a branch of chem devoted to it 1 of the most importatn elements on Earth
Organic chemistry
branch of chem that studies compounds of cells contain carbon
Inorganic chemistry
branch of chem that studies all other compounds containing carbon
Carbonates, cyanides, carbides, sulfides, and oxides of carbon are classified as
inorganic compounds
an element or inorganic compound that is found in nature as solid crystals
a material from which a mineral can be removed at a reasonable cost
forms of an element in the same physical state that have different structures and properties
used in computer chips and solar cells 2nd most abundant element in Earth's crust after O most olften combinde w/ O in the compound silicon dioxide(silica)
found in the quartz crystals, sand, and glass
____ carbide is a major industrial abrasive, common name carborundum, used to sharpen tools
an alloy of tin and copper
major use of lead
storage batteries for automobiles
Group 5A
Then Nitrogen Group
colorless,odorless,and mostly unreactive 78%of earths atmosphere contained in protein and other essential organic compounds
contained in ammonia
white ____ bursts into flames in air and must be stored in water red ____ is less reactiv and is formed when white ____ is heated in the absence of air
black ____ is produced when either red or white phosphorus is heated under high pressure
____ acid is found in processed cheese, laxatives, and baking powders, and flame-retardant coating for fabrics and as a grease remover
fertilizers often contain ____ b/c it is essential for plant growth
lead storage batteries contain 5%
compound of ___ is the active ingredient in a popular, pink remedy for diarrhea and nausea
a low-melting alloy of bismuth, lead, tin, and cadmium used as a plug in automatic sprinkler systems
Wood's metal
used as a disinfectant, bleaching agent, part of stomach acid, used in plastics (PVC)
Added to toothpaste and drinking water to protect tooth enamel from decay
Most electronegative element on the periodic table(greatest tendency to attract electrons), reacts w/ every element except helium, neon, and argon
Found in such foods as fish, eggs and grains and works w/ vitamin E to prevent cell damage
can convert light to electricity, and is used in solar panels, used in photocopiers and in semiconductors
Group 7A
The Halogens
Reactive nonmetals that are always found combined w/ other elements in nature
When ___ is burned in air, it reacts w/ oxygen to form _____ dioxide,which is used to preserve fruit and as an antibacterial agent
What is the the compound that reacts w/ water in the atmosphere to form acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide
____ ____ is an inexpensive acid that is used by so many industries that the amount of it produced can in dicate the strength of an economy, about 1/2 of it is used in fertilizers
Sulfuric acid
In the bottom of the ocean the food chain thrives on hydrogen _____, which is released thru vents on the bottom of the ocean
What is tarnish?
when silver reacts w/ atomospheric hydrogen sulfide to form silver sulfide
Group 6A
The Oxygen Group
Who discovered polonium
Marie and Pierre Currie in 1898, named for Poland
Oxygen has __ allotropes
2,ozone O3 and O2
Who discovered oxygen
Joseph Priestley
____ is the most abundant element in Earth's crust
Oxygen forms at least 1 ____ w/ every element except helium, neon, and argon
____ forms to oxides w/ carbon
Oxygen Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide
Can be found combined w/ mercury in cinnabar or w/ lead in galena
____ has 10 allotropes, more than carbon and oxygen combined
used in photographic film, small traces need for proper thyroid function, used as water disinfectant by campers
Group 8A
The Noble gases
Rarely react b/c of their stable electron configurations
The Noble gases
lightest noble gas, used in scuba tanks, liquid version is used as a coolant for superconducting magnets
used in light displays
most abundant of the noble gases on earth, used for an inert atmosphere for high-temp welding
used to prolong the life of filaments in incandescent light bulbs and as a layer of insulation between panes of glass
argon and krypton
any element whose final electron enters a d sublevel
transition metal
any element whose final electron enters an f sublevel
inner transition metal
f-block elements are divided into the period 6 elements (_____) and period 7 elements (____)
lanthanide series actinide series
share properties such as electrical conductivity, luster, and malleability w/ other metals little variation in atomic size, electronegativity, andionization energy across a period, but different physical properties
transition metals
best conductor electricity
used as structural materials b/c of their relative strength
iron and titanium
physical properties of tranisition metals are determined by the ______
electron confirgurations
hard solids w/ relatively high melting and boiling points, differences based on ability of unpaired d electrons to move into the valence level
transition metals
the _____ unpaired electrons in the d sublevel, the greater the hardness and the higher the melting and boiling points
Transition metals can lose __ s electrons and form ions w/ a _+ charge
Why can transition metals form ions w/ a charge of 3+ or higher
because unpaired d electrons can move to the outer energy lvl
Electrons in the partially filled d sublvls of trans metal ions can absorb ____ _____ at specific wavelengths
visible light
Trans metals ions w/ empty d sublvls and a completely filled and stable d sublvl that do not have color b/c their electrons can only be excited to ultraviolet range wavelengths
scandium,titanium, and zinc
Trans metals that can form more than 1 type of ion can have a ____ change that indicates the ion's charge
the ability of a substance to be affected by a magnetic field
a moving ___ creates a magnetic field
when all of the electrons in atoms or ions are paired, the substance is either unaffected or slightly repelled bay a magnetic field
When there is an unpaired electron in the valence orbital of an atom or ion, the electron is attracted to a magnetic field
what is a substances that its magnetic properties disappear after the magnetic field is removed
temporary magnet
the strong attraction of a substance to a magnetic field
The ions align themselves in the direction of the ___ ____
magnetic field
substance or element that its ions can align w/ a magnetic field, and when the field is removed the ions stay aligned
permanet magnets
Only transition metals that are unreactive enough to be found in nature uncombined w/ other elements
Copper,silver,gold,platinum,and palladium
the branch of applied science that studies and designs methods for extracting metals and their compounds from ores
What are the 3 methods for extracting metals from their ores
heat,electricity,use of solutions
Most ___ iron is prified and mixed w/ other elements in alloys called steel
_____ ____ play a vital role in the economy of many countries b/c they have a wide variety of uses
Transition Metals
platium,chromium,cobalt,manganese,and tungsten
reffered to as "strategic and critical"
Used in electrical wiring
protective coating for other metals
used in making of steel
transition metals used to control the conditions at which a reaction will occur
platinum, palladium, and nickel
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chlorine
needed by the body in large amounts
___ ion is in the center of each hemoglobin molecule
molecules that help your body digest proteins and eliminate carbon dioxide contain____
involved in cell respiration
manganese and copper
needed for the development of red blood cells
The inner tranistion metals divided into _ groups: the period _ lanthanide series and the period _ actinide series
silvery metals w/ relatively high melting points and b/c of little variation in properties among them, they are found mixed together in nature
lanthanide series
glass in welder's goggles contains _____ and _______, which abosb high-energy radiation that can damage the eyes
neodymium, praseodymium
The ____ and _____ are found in television screens and computer monitors, b/c their ions in oxides emit bright red light when excited by a beam of electrons
50% cerium, is used by the steel industry to remove carbon from iron and steel
msich metal
used in movie projectors, high-intensity searchlights, lasers, and tinted sunglasses
compounds of lanthanides`
radioactive elements, only 3 exist in nature, rest are synthetic
actinide series
synthetic elements, atomic numbers are greater than 92, created in particle accelerators or nuclear reactors, generally decay quickly
transuranium elements
remains reactive for thousands of years, used as fuel in nuclear power plants
plutonium-239, plutonium
used in home smoke dectectors
Are you glad you are done

Deck Info