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The Pharmacy Technician Chapter 1


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Who published a study of Digitalis?
British physician, William Withering
Who was Avicenna and what was he known for?
Islamic physician whose writings dominated medical thinking in Europe for centuries.
Who was Dioscorides and what was he known for?
Greek physician who wrote the De Materia Medica
What company was responsible for mass production of penicillin during WWII?
Pfizer Pharmaceuticals
In what year was the first case of AIDS documented?
In what year was the birth control pill introduced?
What book would be the best source for locating information about an OTC product?
The Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs
What are the 3 volumes of the USP DI?
Vol 1: Drug Info for Health Care Professionals
Vol 2: Advice for the Patient
Vol 3: Approved Drug Products and Legal Requirements
What is the most widely used drug in the world and when was it first developed?
Aspirin - acetylsalicylic acid, was developed in 1899
What is Shen Nung recognized for and around what year was this done?
He was the first practitioner of the "trial and error" method around 3000 BC.
In what month and year what the first human insulin trial done?
January of 1922
What is Albert Sabin known for and in what year did this take place?
In 1957, he developed an oral polio vaccine using a weakened form of the live virus.
In what year was HAART put to use and what does it consist of?
Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy
Is a combination of 1 protease inhibitor and 2 antiretroviral drugs and its use began in 1996
What is Alcmaeon known for and around what year was this?
He saw diseases as a result of a loss of the body's natural equilibrium. This was around 500 BC.
What was King Mithridates known for and when did he do this?
He practiced an early form of immunization by building up a tolerance to poisons in 100 BC.
What is the Shen Nung Pen Tsao?
Is the 1st official Chinese herbal list, consisting of 365 herbs.
What were Galen's beliefs and around what year was this?
Galen believed that there were 4 humours, he advocated bleeding, and he also believed in the scientific method. This was around 162 AD.
What is the plant, sarsparilla, used to treat?
Kidney and bladder ailments
What is James B. Collip known for?
He developed an extract of insulin pure enough to test on humans.
What was Paracelsus known for and in what year was this?
He rejected the humoural philosophy of Galen and used chemistry to create medicinal drugs. He also published a recipe for laudanum around 1500 AD.
When was the Pen Tsao Kang Mu written and what is it?
Was completed by Li Shi Zhen in 1580 AD. Is a compilation of 2000 drugs.
What is quinine used to treat, where can it be found, and when was this discovered?
In 1630 AD, quinine, which comes from the bark of a Peruvian tree called the cinchona, was used to treat malaria.
What is Dr. Zabdiel Boylston known for and when did this happen?
In 1721 AD, in Boston, he distributed the smallpox vaccine.
What is Edward Jenner known for and when did he do this?
In 1796 AD, he successfully used a vaccine from the cowpox disease to innoculate against smallpox.
What is Frederich Serturner known for and when did he do this?
In 1803, the German pharmacist, Serturner, extracted morphine from opium.
When and where was the 1st publicized operation using general anesthetic, and what was the anesthetic?
Ether was used, in Boston in 1846.
What did Louis Pasteur discover and when?
That microorganisms cause food spoilage and heat can be used to kill them and preserve the food. Discovered in 1864.
What was the 1st local anesthetic, when was it first used, by who, and what are the man-made substitutes?
Cocaine was used in 1884 by Viennese surgeon, Carl Koller. The substitutes are Procain and Novocain.
When were antitoxins developed and what were they used for?
In 1890, antitoxins were used to treat diptheria and tetanus.
What did Alexander Fleming discover and when?
He discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic, in Britain in 1928.
What hormone did Russell Marker create from a species of Mexican yam, and when?
In 1943, he created progesterone, the first reliable birth control drug.
What did James Watson and Francis Crick identify, and when?
In 1951, they identified the DNA structure.
What did Jonas Salk develop, and when?
In 1955, he developed a refined injectable polio vaccine from the killed polio virus. Only the injectable form from the killed virus is still used to innoculate children today.
What is AZT, and in what year was it first used?
It was the first FDA approved drug for the treatment of AIDS, and began to be used in 1987.
When did the Human Genome Project begin, and what is its purpose?
It began in 1988, and it is to map the entire DNA sequence.
What is Amgen?
A biotech company whose first product, Epogen, which is used to treat anemia in dialysis patients, was introduced in 1989.

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