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Introduction to Cancer


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initiation stage of cancer
carcinigens, radiation, virus, inflammation (some), oncogenes
cancerous tumor; cells multiply rapidly, destroy normal cells and spread (metastisis)
tumor supressing gene
anti-oncogene; when inactivation occurs leads to cancer (normally they slow cell growth)
from factories/cars cause cancer
a mutant, cancer causing gene that has the ability to transform into a cancerous cell when activated; derived from "proto-oncogenes" and are impt in regulating cell growth
alcohol and other health problems
increases stomach secretions, leads to gastritus (inflammation of the stomach lining); impairs nutrient abcorbtion; cirrhosis (fatty deposits in liver)
& other household cleaners cause cancer
uv radiation and cancer
sunlight, skin cancer
non-cancerous tumor; slow growing, incapsolated, remains in same position, may be painful
% cancers related to lifestyle
chemical that increases the frequency of mutations and cause cancer
exercise and cancer
colon and breast, reproductive cancers in women are associated with low levels of physical activity
cigarette smoking and cancer
30% of all cancer deaths; lung, larynx, mouth, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, mouth
alcohol and cancer
>2 drinks/day: mouth, throat, esophagus, breast and liver
free radicals
molecules with an unpaired electron that can damage DNA
study: fat and cancer
rats treated with a carcinogen and then fed added oils; those with the oil had in some cases 100% more cases of tumors
diet and cancer
fat is partially carcinogenic; BBQed/smoked food has free radicals; pesticides on produce
a complex disease characterized by abnormal cell division and tumor formation (growth genes regulate cell division, those cells have had mutations in DNA that result in the lack of contact inhibition)
lung, lip, mouth cancer
cigarettes, pipes, chewing tobacco
biggest diagnosis?
breast and prostate
promotion stage of cancer
these things block the p53 gene from functioning: hormones (insulin), growth factors (IGF-1), dietary fat
% cancers that stem from genetics
diet and cancer
dietary fat/sugar increase free radical formation and stimulates tumor growth
can block carcinogenic effect of free radicals (fruit and cruciferous veggies)
% cancers we cannot explain
biggest cancer killer?
lung cancer

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