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microbiology 1 osu

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What is microbiology
the study of microorganisms
characteristics of microbes
-invisible to naked eye
-"fairly" simple organisms


what is a unicellular organism?
one cell makes up the entire organism
what is a multicellular organism?
more than one cell makes up the organism. Communication between cells (simple). Also usually in filaments and the cells are very similar.
What are the eukaryotes?
Fungi, algae, protozoa and slime molds/water molds
What are teh prokaryotes?
bacteria and archaea
What are the acellular?
viruses, prions, and viroids
macroscopic
visible to naked eye
What did Robert Hook do?
first observations of microbes, used microscope to describe tissue, described cells as the basic unit of organization of living things (must have cell to be alive)
What are cells described as?
basic unit of organization of living things
Who is the father of microbiogy?
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Who described "animalcules"?
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
What is spontaneous generation?
living things just appear out of inanimate matter. People believed living things spontaneously appeared
Who worked in teh French wine industry?
Louis Pasteur
Pasteur believed science should have _____________
...a practical application
The use of heat to control microbial contamination is known as?
Pasteurization
An experiment where, microbes formed in meat broth in an open flask and didnt form in meat broth in a closed flask disproves what?
spontaneous generation
What is a swan neck flask?
flask with a thin, curved, straw-like opening
-open to the air and "life-force" however so thin that microbes get caught in the neck
What is the germ theory of disease?
the idea that microbes are responsible for infectious disease
Who studied anthraz and proved the germ theory of disease?
Robert Koch
When was the golden age of microbiology?
1857-1917
When were foundations of microbiology and the importance of microbes established?
During the Golden Age of Microbiology
What is the age of molecular genetics?
importance of DNA, beginning of genetic engineering, and more understanding of genes
What did Hershey and Chase prove?
DNA is a molecule of heredity, and they used microbes in their experiments
Describe the Hershey/Chase experiment
-used bacteria and a virus
-labeled the DNA and the protein
-showed the DNA being transferred from one to the other

gene
a segment of DNA molecule that provides the biochemical information for a function product
What is metabolism?
chemical reactions taking palce in a cell
What is anabolism?
making complex molecules from simpler ones
What is catabolism?
breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones
Which requires energy, catabolism or anabolism?
anabolism
What is known as breaking down and building up?
metabolism
What is the universal energy currency?
ATP
organic compound
a substance characterized by chains or rings or carbon that are linked to atoms of hydrogen and sometimes oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements
photosynthesis
anabolic, performed by phototrophs (must have light-absorbing pigments). getting energy from light
How do non-phototrophs get their energy?
glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose)
Describe respiration
-requires air(performed by aerobes)
-during krebs cycle and ETS
-ends in 38 ATP, water and carbon dioxide



Is respiration or fermentation more efficient?
respiration

Define facultative anaerobes
can use either respiration or fermentation
Chemo=
chemical, relies on breakdown of chemical compounds for energy, organic compounds
photo=
photosynthesis, relies on energy from light(sun)
heterotroph=
gets carbon from pre-formed organic compounds, other organism
autotroph=
gets carbon from carbon fixation, inorganic compound (carbon dioxide), must be converted into organic compound
Chemoheterotroph
chemical breakdown for energy, pre-formed organic compounds for carbon
examples of chemoheterotroph
e. coli
photoheterotroph
photosynthesis and pre-formed organic compound
example of photoheterotroph
rhodospirillum (purple sulfur bacteria)
chemoautotroph
chemical breakdown and carbon fixation
example of chemoautotroph
nitrobacter
photoautotroph
photosynthesis and carbon fixation
example of photoautotroph
cyanobacteria
What is a carbohydrate
carbon(1)hydrogen(2)oxygen(1)
and its the energy source for cells
What is a monosaccharide?
a simple carb, (one sugar), glucose, fructose, galactose
What is a disaccharide?
a two sugar carb. lactose, sucrose, maltose
what is polysaccharide?
many sugared carbohydrate. starch, cellulose
What are 3 types of lipids?
fats, phospholipids, and steriods
What is a lipid
contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. insoluble in water, and a storage molecule
What is a protein
made up of 20 different amino acids, linked with peptide bonds
What is an enzyme?
a protein ending in -ase, that speeds up reactions in cells
What are nucleic acids?
stores genetic information in chemical code, composed of nucleotides(base and sugar)
What are the 4(5) bases of nucleotides?
A, T(U), C, and G
What are 2 types of nucleotides?
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) and Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
What are cell requirements?
materials(organic molecules), driving force(ATP), and a plan(information stored in chemical code..DNA)
In DNA A connects to _____
T
In RNA, A connects to ___
U
Why is DNA replicated?
To copy DNA so a cell can divide, giving each cell a complete copy..
How is DNA replicated?
-h bonds broken between bases (strands pulled apart)
-DNA polymerase, enzyme copies bases
-pool of nucleotides in cytoplasm
-phosphate backbone established


What is the purpose of DNA transcription?
convert info in a form to direct metabolism, disposable copy of instructions
What results in transcription?
double stranded DNA is unchanged and single stranded RNA is made
What are 3 types of RNA?
mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA
What is the purpose of mRNA
to carry info needed to assemble amino acids into protein
What is the purpose of rRNA
to form the body of ribosome
What is the purpose of tRNA
to transfer or carry the appropriate amino acid to ribosome
What is the purpose for DNA translation
To produce protein from amino acids, the last step in gene expression
What results in translation?
A peptide chain is formed and is folded to make a protein
What is a codon?
3 adjacent bases on mRNA, refers to the code for an amino acid
Possible effect of a mutation can be?
-no impact at all
-slightly detrimental
Types of mutagens?
UV radiation, environment or industrial chemicals, drugs, certain viruses
What is taxonomy?
the science of classification, uses established rules and classifies them by relatedness
What are the 2 types of cells?
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Are prokaryotes smaller or larger than eukaryotes?
smaller, about 1/10th the size
Which is simpler, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
prokaryotes
"True Nucleus" refers to ____
eukaryotes
What are ribosomes?
protein making structures, made of protein and RNA
What does cell membrane (plasma membrane) do?
barrier between the inside of the cell and environment, regulates what enters and leaves the cell, communicates with external environment
What is cell membrane composed of?
phospholipids
What is the cytoplasm?
the matrix of the cell, its a gel-like liquid, provides a fluid medium for the cell
What is a genome?
chemical form of the information storage, DNA/RNA
Single, circular chromosomes refers to what?
prokaryotes
several, linear chromosomes refer to ?
eukaryotes
Where are organelles found?
eukaryotes only
What is generated in the Mitochondria?
ATP (energy), only found in eukaryotes
Do both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have cell walls and flagella?
no, they may or may not have cell walls and flagella
What are flagella?
whiplike structures (generally give the ability to be mobile)
How do eukaryotes reproduce?
asexual and sexual
How do prokaryotes reproduce?
asexual
What is a group of similar species?
genus
What are organisms that can be interbred and have a common pool of genes?
species
Species that differ by 1 characteristic are called a ?
strain
What is a virus composed of?
protein and nucleic acid
Does a virus need a host to reproduce?
yes
Define virus:
any unseen or unknown entity involved in infectious disease
What is helical structure?
tightly wound coil
What is a icosahedral structure?
geometrical figure with 20 equal-sized triangular faces
what is a complex structure or a virus?
combination structure and/or has additional structures on it
what is the nucleocapsid
genome + capsid
How do you cultivate viruses in bacteria?
bacteriophage..grow bacteria in a broth and add bacteriophage
What is a bacteriophage?
"bacteria eater" virus that infects bacteria
How do you cultivate viruses in plants?
By infect the whole plant
How do you cultivated viruses in animals?
infecting host animals, infecting fertilized chicken eggs, or with a cell culture/cell line
What are 2 properties of cancerous cells?
grow and divide more frequently, stick together less firmly, undergo dedifferentiation(going back to earlier stage of development..looking like stem cells)
What are proto-oncogenes?
normal genes that regulate growth, cant be converted to oncogenes by viruses
oncogenes
genes that can transform cells into cancerous cells
What is a viroid?
circular molecule of single stranded RNA, no capsid, infects plants only
Potato Spindle tuber disease is an example of what type of infectious agent?
viroid
What is a prion?
composed of protein only, infects central nervous system of humans and animals, altered form of normal host proteins corrupts protein
Mad Cow Disease is caused by what?
a prion
What is the cell membrane linkage for archaea?
ether
What is the cell membrane linkage for bacteria?
ester
What have cells walls of pseudomerein?
archaea
What make up the cell walls of bacteria?
peptidoglycan
What nutritional classes are archaea?
chemoautotroph or chemoheterotroph
What nutritional class are most bacteria?
chemoheterotroph
What are 3 traits of all prokaryotes?
simple cells, no organelles, and asexual reproduction
How does binary fission work?
one celle splits into 2 identical copies
What color is gram+ stains?
purple or blue
what color are gram- stains?
red or pink
DOes gram+ or gram- bacteria contain many, many layers of peptidoglycan?
gram+
Does gram+ contain teihoic acid?
yes
What shape is bacilli?
rod shaped, can form long chains
What shape is cocci?
round, circular
What shape is spiral?
curved rods
Describe the glycocalyx
outermost layer of cells, either a capsule or slime layer, and provides protection allowing bacteria to cause disease
What are the pili used for?
transferring DNA from one cell to another, and attachment to tissue or other surfaces
Antibiotic resistance if often transferred through what?
plasmid
What is the most resistant biological structure known?
endospore
What is "animal-like"
fungi
What nutritional class are fungi?
chemoheteroph
Where do saprobes get organic material from?
dead/decaying organisms
What are examples of fungi?
yeasts, molds, mushrooms
How does yeast reproduce?
budding
What fungi is associated with animal feces?
zygomycota
What fungi are mushrooms?
basidiomycota
What fungi(yeast) are used in the production of cheese, bread, and beer?
ascomycota
Define mutualistic:
beneficial to both organisms
Are lichens single organisms?
no
About 10% of a lichen is made up of what?
a photosynthetic microbe

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