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Psychology (intro) Final


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********************* What is the difference between abnormal behavior and psychological disorder?
CHOLOGICAL DISORDER =Condition in which thoughts, feelings, and behavior interfere with normal functioning. Defined by mental health professionals. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR =Atypical behavior. Defined by cultural standards.
2. What is the prevalence of psychological disorders? What type of disorders make up the most of the psychopathology diagnoses?
1 of every 5 Americans has been diagnosed with a psychological disorder MOST OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ARE ANXIETY OR DEPRESSION
3. Mention the three assessment tools discussed in class.
–structured and unstructured interviews –behavioral assessment –psychological testing
4. Why is standardization important when it comes to psychopathology diagnosis?
We must determine what is normal or standard to identify what differs from the norm. To diagnose someone, we have to agree on the definition of standardization so that we know if the individual is acting different then what is supposedly “ normal”
5. What is the DSM and which version are we currently using?
DSM =Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Currently, we are using the DSM IV ( 4).. 5 is under construction (development)
********************* Why do we call the DSM a multiaxial system? What are the 5 axes of the DSM? What is the advantage of using these 5 axes?
There are 5 axes along which clients are scored. These 5 axes are used to narrow down the 200 disorders and 17 categories into 5 different axes
What are the 5 axes of the DSM?
1. clinical disorder 2. 2. Mental retardation and personality disorder 3. general medical conditions 4. psychosocial and environmental 5. GAS- global assessment of functioning
7. Why is this statement false: “a person with a psychopathology diagnosis can be considered insane”. Define insanity.
Insanity is a legal term not necessarily a psychological term Legal terms denotes whether a person is functional and can be held responsible for their decisions
8. Read the story on multiple personalities. From this story, can we conclude that there is such a thing as a multiple personality disorder? Is it as prevalent as people make it sound? Is the prevalence related to social norms?
Now called dissociative identity disorder. Not as prevalent as people make it sound. No means of assessment for this disorder. Seems to develop after ppl commit a crime
9. What do forensic psychologists do?
Forensic Psychology: Evaluation of sanity (are people capable of standing trial?). –Assist in child-custody cases. –Examine eye witness testimony. –Advise on jury selection. –Design of correctional facilities, –Criminal profiling, etc.
, can we conclude that there is such a thing as a multiple personality disorder? Is it as prevalent as people make it sound? Is the prevalence related to social norms?
Now called dissociative identity disorder. Not as prevalent as people make it sound. No means of assessment for this disorder. Seems to develop after ppl commit a crime
. What do forensic psychologists do?
Forensic Psychology: Evaluation of sanity (are people capable of standing trial?). –Assist in child-custody cases. –Examine eye witness testimony. –Advise on jury selection. –Design of correctional facilities, –Criminal profiling, etc.
10. What are the main consequences of chronic anxiety?
Chronic anxiety results in: –Sleep difficulties. –Sweating, dry mouth, rapid pulse, increased blood pressure, increased muscle tension. –Hypertension, headaches, intestinal problems. –Restless and pointless motor behaviors. –Atrophy in the hippocampus.
11. What are some of the cognitive markers of people suffering from anxiety?
⬢Anxiety sufferers have better memory for threatening than nonthreatening events. ⬢ People with anxiety disorders perceive ambiguous situations as threatening.
12. What is generalized anxiety disorder? Does it affect males or females primarily?
⬢ Persistent and inappropriate fear for which there is no apparent cause. ⬢ More prevalent in women than men. Incidence: 3- 4%.
13. What are phobias? Mention the two types of phobias discussed in class. Which is more prevalent in the general population?
⬢ Persistent and inappropriate(out of proportion) fear of a specific object or situation. WITH NO APPARENT CAUSE ⬢ We talk about SPECIFIC PHOBIAS (INCIDENCE: 10%), social phobias (incidence: 2-5%).
14. Explain why we say that phobias have genetic, evolutionary, and learning components.
⬢ phobias have genetic and evolutionary components= We are better prepared to fear some objects/situations than others. ⬢ They also have a learning component(direct experience, observation).
15. What is panic disorder? Explain what we mean by “panic”. Is panic related to agoraphobia?
• Panic disorder :Recurrent rushes of paralyzing anxiety. • Episodes last for about 15 min. The subject becomes depersonalized to the point of thinking they are going to die. • usually related to traumatic experience – can be treated by medication and therapy related to agoraphobia?:FEAR OF PUBLIC, OPEN , SOCIAL SITUATIONS * panic attack.. may be response to agoraphobia PANIC: EXTREME REACTION TO THE POINT WHERE SOMEONE THINKS THEY ARE GOING TO DIE
********************* What is OCD (define here obsessions and compulsions)? Is it more common in males or females?
⬢ OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) ⬢ Persistent, uncontrollable thoughts (obsessions) and ritualized behavior (compulsions). ⬢ More common in women than men. ⬢ Incidence: 2-3%.
17. Become familiar with the most common obsessions and compulsions. Are OCD sufferers aware that their obsessions and compulsions are irrational?
• OCD sufferers know that their obsessions and compulsions are irrational but can’t stop them. • Most common obsessions and compulsions: o OBSESSIONS> COMPULSIONS> o Dirt, germs, and contamination -55% Checking-79% o Aggressive impulses-50% washing-58% o Need for symmetry-37% counting-21% o Bodily concerns-35% o Forbidden sexual impulses-32%
18. What part of the brain is related to OCD? Is there a disease-OCD link? Is it true that conditioning processes can make OCD worse?
⬢ OCD sufferers have abnormal caudate nuclei (related to impulse control). The brain seems to compensate by making the prefrontal cortex overactive. Can be caused by strep infection ⬢ (PART OF THE BRAIN IS NOT COMPLETELY ACTIVE SO THE BRAIN OVERCOMPENSATES) ⬢ negative reinforcement: Compulsions decrease the Anxiety produced by obsessions. : makes person feel better but makes rituals and compulsions more frequent
19. What are mood disorders?
• Class of mental disorders characterized by prolonged or extreme disruptions in mood that interfere with normal functioning. –Sadness. –Anger. –Euphoria. –Disgust.
********************* What is the difference between unipolar, bipolar, and dysthymia disorders.
⬢ Unipolar depression =Depression. ⬢ Bipolar depression = Depression + some level of mania. ⬢ Dysthymia -Mild to moderate depression.
21. What is mania?
A period of abnormally elevated or irritable mood for at least one week. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity. – Decreased need for sleep. –More talkative. –Flight of ideas / racing thoughts. –Distractibility. –Increase in goal-directed activity. –Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities.
22. Explain the difference between bipolar I, bipolar II, rapid cycling bipolar, and cyclothymia.
Bipolar I: Depression + mania. -Bipolar II: Depression + hypomania. ⬢Cyclothymia: mild depression + hypomania. Rapid cycling: At least 4 episodes of a mood disturbance in the last year.
23. Look at the statistics for mood disorders. Who are more likely to get depression, males or females? Bipolar? Which disorder is more prevalent?
⬢ Incidence: 13% men, ⬢ 21% women. ⬢ 50% of the population experience some sort of mood disturbance. ⬢ 90% of major depression sufferers recover, but 50% relapse. ⬢ 1% of population experience bipolar disorders equal in men and women ⬢ MOST PREVALENT DISORDERS: ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION
22. Explain the difference between bipolar I, bipolar II, rapid cycling bipolar, and cyclothymia.
Bipolar I: Depression + mania. -Bipolar II: Depression + hypomania. ⬢Cyclothymia: mild depression + hypomania. Rapid cycling: At least 4 episodes of a mood disturbance in the last year.
24. Is there a genetic component to depression and bipolar disorder (mention here the twin studies)?
Genetic component for both • DEPRESSION: o Genetics-predisposition(not doomed –just “more likely”), Biological, and environmental factors- seasons • BIPOLAR: o Primarily biological o If you have a set of identical twins, one has bipolar disorder- the second one is 70% likely to have it as well
⬢ What neurotransmitter is associated to depression?
Related to Norepinephrine and serotonin function
25. What is SAD?
Seasonal affective disorder: related to lack of sunlight- winter (seasons) Sarah palin: “tanning bed in her house” relieve sad… exposure to light
26. What is the relationship between stress, loss, and depression?
Environment: Stress and loss. Depressive symptoms tend to create an environment that encourages more depressive thoughts and behaviors.
27. What is the relationship between mood disorders and suicide and creativity?
Creativity = High frequency of mood disorders among people in the arts. ⬢Suicide = High prevalence among people with mood disorders.
28. What is schizophrenia?
• A psychological disorder involving distortions in language, thinking, perception, emotion, and behavior. • Schizophrenia means “split mind.”
********************* When in life do the symptoms of schizophrenia first appear? Which gender is more affected by schizophrenia? Why does it have a better prognosis in underdeveloped than developed countries?
Affects men and women EQUALLY. ⬢Schizophrenia appears between the ages of 15 and 25. ⬢1% of the population is affected. ⬢ Prevalence is not the same in developed and underdeveloped countries⬦ Developing countries have more cases of schizophrenia than underdeveloped countries because the stress level is lower
********************* What is the difference between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms- (something added)distrorted or excessive activity Negative symptoms (taking something away) deficits in functioning
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: a. Deterioration of adaptive behavior ⬢
NEGATIVE ⬢ Social withdrawal ⬢ Waxy flexibility ⬢ catalepsy
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: b. Loosening of associations
• POSITIVE • Loosening of associations: Impaired logic, • “word salads,”neologisms. • -Word salads
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: c. Disturbance of affect
⬢ NEGATIVE ⬢ Blunt emotions ⬢ Flat effect ⬢ monotone
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: d. Delusions (become familiar with the main types – no need to memorize them)
⬢ POSITIVE ⬢ Delusions: False personal beliefs based on incorrect inference about reality. O PERSECUTION: BELIEF THAT PEOPLE ARE TRYING TO HARM THEM o Reference: belief that other people have specific significance to them o Grandeur: think they have great power or knowledge o Identity: belief that they are someone else( jesus, president) o Guilt: belief that they have committed horrible sin o Control: possessed, demon
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: e. Hallucinations
⬢ POSITIVE ⬢ Hallucinations: False sensory perceptions. ⬢ -Usually auditory. ⬢ -Can also be visual, tactile, or olfactory
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: f. Slowdown of speech and behavior
-NEGATIVE Difficulty finishing sentences and actions. -Monotonous tone of voice.
31. Explain each of the following symptoms of schizophrenia. Classify them as positive or negative: g. Disorganized/inappropriate behavior
⬢ Disorganized and inappropriate behavior: Muttering, wearing weird clothes, refusing to bathe, echolalia, etc.
32. Are there gender differences in prevalence of positive/negative symptoms of schizophrenia? Which lead to a poorer prognosis?
⬢ Negative symptoms are more common in men than women and are associated to a poorer prognosis than positive symptoms
33. Are positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia equally reactive to medication? Do they have the same biological basis?
⬢ Negative symptoms do not improve with antipsychotic medications. ⬢ It is possible that positive symptoms are related to neurotransmitter function and negative symptoms to brain abnormalities.- biological basis
34. List the 5 types of schizophrenia recognized by the DSM. Become familiar with the characteristics of the disorganized and paranoid types.
⬢ Disorganized: Disorganized speech, flat or inappropriate affect, and disorganized behavior. ⬢ Paranoid: Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations. ⬢ Catatonic: Physical rigidity or hyperactivity. ⬢ Undifferentiated: Presence of combination of symptoms from other types. ⬢ Residual: Presence of minor symptoms as an active episode diminishes.
35. Explain why we know that schizophrenia has a strong genetic component.
⬢ Strong genetic component. ⬢ Siblings =If one becomes schizophrenic, about 10% chance that the other will also become schizophrenic. ⬢ Identical twins =If one becomes schizophrenic, 50% chance that the other will also become schizophrenic. ⬢ Genetics create a predisposition toward schizophrenia. Other factors trigger it.
36. Explain why we know that schizophrenia is a brain disease. Does it really begin in early adulthood or are there markers of schizophrenia during childhood?
⬢ Specific brain markers: o -Hyperactive dopamine neurons. o -Enlarged ventricles. o -Low activity in frontal and temporal lobes. ⬢ May be a disease of association between different brain areas. ⬢ ⬢ May begin developing early in life: Children who later become schizophrenics show behavioral and social disturbances. ⬢
37. Why has stress being related to the onset and relapse of schizophrenia?
⬢ Stress: ⬢More prevalent in unstable than stable families. More prevalent in urban than rural areas. ⬢Schizovirus? Schizophrenia more prevalent in children whose mothers had the flu during the second trimester.
38. Explain why people talk about a “schizovirus”.
Schizovirus? Schizophrenia more prevalent in children whose mothers had the flu during the second trimester.
39. What are personality disorders?
inflexible and maladaptive patterns of behavior
********************* . For each of the following personality disorders, describe: Characteristics (general; no need to memorize the DSM criteria), whether there are gender differences in prevalence of the disorder, and the genetic and environmental trig
• MOVIE: FATAL ATTRACTION • twice as common in women than men • o Weak sense of self = Fear abandonment, manipulative. o -Emotional instability = Extreme mood swings and anger without clear triggers. o -Impulsivity = Sexual promiscuity, binge eating, self-mutilation. • Genetic component (“runs”in families). • • May be related to abuse or ambivalent relationship with parents at early age.
41. What is autism? Is it a unitary disorder?
developmental disorder: Deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests. NOT A UNITARY DISORDER- not problems in just one area.. behavioral and social
42. Are there gender differences in prevalence of autism? What percentage of children receives an autism diagnosis?
Occurs on a continuum or spectrum ⬢1 in about 160 children are diagnosed with autism; 3 times more male than female
********************* Describe the three main characteristics of autism.
⬢ Deficits in communication = Verbal and nonverbal impairments. E.g., echolalia, pronoun reversal. ⬢ Lack of awareness of others = Fail to smile, reject contact with others, etc. ⬢ Restricted activities and interests = Focus on minute sensory (not social) details, stereotyped play, disturbed by changes in routine, self-abuse.
44. Explain the evidence for a genetic component in autism.
• •70-90% concordance in monozygotic twins, 10% in dizygotic twins, 9% among siblings (35% if two siblings have autism). • Genetic component –May be recessive since autistic people seldom have children.
45. What is the relationship between developing autism and brain growth, oxytocin function, and vaccinations?
The brain of autistic children grows extremely large until age 2; then slows down until age 5. ⬢Symptoms appear to improve with added oxytocin (hormone relevant to attachment).
46. What is ADHD? Talk about some of the problems derived from having ADHD.
ADHD –Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder •Social problems = Fail to notice nonverbal cues and make social mistakes. •Restless, inattentive, and impulsive behavior. •Incidence reports vary from 3% to 20%. Difficulty to separate from normal behavior. •Possible psychological causes (healthy family environment?)
47. Explain the genetic and environmental triggers of ADHD.
ADHD behavior is similar to patients with frontal lobe damage. Genetic component (55% concordance in monozygotic twins). But what is inherited?
48. Do all children diagnosed with ADHD actually suffer from it? Will they show ADHD symptoms as adults?
⬢30-80% of people who had ADHD as children continue to show symptoms as adults. ⬢Tendency to early diagnoses may misdiagnose normally developing children.
1. According to Freud, what triggers neurosis and when (in the lifetime of a subject) does neurosis begin? How can neuroses be treated?
Freud believed that neurosis = unresolved conflict and repression of sexual desires. ⬢The conflict (between the ID and the SUPEREGO) starts during childhood. ⬢Treatment = Patients must talk openly to try to find the source of anxiety and allow the EGO to solve the conflict.
2. Why does psychoanalytic therapy make people lay down on a couch? What types of techniques are used with patients laying on the couch?
(laying down on a couch in a dark room) to allow the unconscious to be expressed. ⬢Free associations technique =Patient describes whatever comes to mind. ⬢Dream analysis =Interpretation of the hidden meaning of dreams.
3. According to Freud, what are resistance, transference, and countertransference? Are they actually seen in therapy?
Resistance =Patients use defense mechanisms to decrease the pain of bringing sexual conflicts to consciousness. Transference =Patients direct to the therapist emotions felt toward others during childhood (e.g., love and hate). ⬢Countertransference=The therapist is at risk of projecting emotions onto the patient.
4. What is the main problem with Freud’s psychoanalysis? How has it been addressed by his followers?
Open-ended technique =Patients could take years to resolve their conflicts. Freud did not put a definite end to therapy. ⬢Short-term psychodynamic therapies =New psychoanalytical approach.
5. What are the general characteristics of humanistic therapies?
⬢Rejection of mechanistic and biological views. ⬢Importance of the human spirit, individual goals, and aspirations.
6. According to Rogers’ person-centered therapy, what defines people’s personality? How are healthy people defined? What produces psychological problems (i.e., anxiety)?
A person’s self-conceptis the most important determinant of personality. •Healthy people =Fulfilled = They love and are loved unconditionally. •Goal:Provide a supportive environment to make people develop a better self-concept.
********************* Why is Rogers’ approach known as person-centered? What is the main technique
Person-centered =Non-judgmental, unconditional positive regard of clients. •Technique = Nondirective therapy = Affirmation of the client’s words to allow them to hear what they thoughts sound like to others = Reflective listening.
8. Explain how motivational interviewing is used to address drug and alcohol abuse.
MOTIVATIONAL interviewing uses client centered approach over a very short period-maybe 1 or 2 interviews Success is contributed to warmth expressed from therapist to client
9. What is behavioral therapy? What principles are used during behavior modification?
A target behavior is modified through reinforcement and punishment. ⬢Use of social skills training and modeling.
********************* Explain systematic desensitization and aversion therapies.
Example: Systematic desensitization ⬢View of phobias as conditioned fear responses acquired through learning. ⬢Procedure =Conditioning of relaxation to the fear-causing stimulus. Example: Aversion therapy ⬢Antabusefor alcohol addiction. ⬢Rapid smoking
11. According to Beck’s cognitive therapy, what should therapists be interested in discovering? Whatis the goal of therapy?\\
should be interested in what the client thinks is wrong not what others say is wrong with the client Goal: Allow clients to examine themselves to discover inconsistencies in their thoughts.
12. According to Ellis’ RET, what triggers psychological dysfunction? What is the goal of therapy?
Change the way people interpret events, negative life events are not the problem, peoples interpretation of those events are the problem ⬢Goal: Get clients to think clearly about their problems
What is instant intervention?
Immediate confrontation rather than lengthy analysis Example: therapist insults client and client automatically answers : I am not a failure! Beginning to list the positive qualities ab themselves from there-then therapy begins
********************* What is CBT? How is it applied to eating disorders?
Cognitive behavioral therapy: Eclectic (mixed) techniques =Use of behavioral principles or cognitive principles, whatever seems more effective. Phase 1 =Behavioral contingencies = Reward for eating/not vomiting. ⬢Phase 2 = Cognitive therapy = Find the source of the anxiety, change self-concept. ⬢Cognitive therapy alone does not produce improvement. The combination is successful in 60-90% of cases.
14. What is ECT? Can it be used to treat all psychological disorders?
Electroconvulsive therapy: done with severe epilepsy /not commonly used Massive firing in the brain ECT causes seizures that change the way in which the brain functions. –First used in schizophrenics = No real improvement. –Used today to treat severe cases of depression.
15. Name the three adult psychological disorders that require medication for treatment.
SCHIZOPHRENIA--antipsychotics BIPOLAR DISORDER-- lithium SEVERE DEPRESSION--anti depressants
16. Which type of psychological treatment is best?
•People seem to improve with psychotherapy, regardless of the therapist’s theoretical background. •People report that psychotherapy allows them to gain insight into their problems, vent emotions, the development of self-confidence. •Some treatments have proven superior for specific dysfunctions.
17. Explain the psychological and pharmacological approaches to treating phobias and panic disorder. Which is superior?
Systematic desensitization is effective in addressing different components of fear. Example gradually take away fear of snake.. see snake picture, touch picture, see snake touch snake ⬢Use of virtual environments. ⬢CBT changes the way in which the brain processes the fear-producing stimulus. ⬢Anxiolytic medication may help therapy, but has no long-lasting effects on anxiety reduction
18. There seem to be two types of OCD, with and without tics. What pharmacological manipulation is effective for each of these types?
•OCD may be related to Tourette’s syndrome (characterized by motor and vocal tics), and sensitive to dopamine antagonists: with tics •OCD without tics appears related to oxytocin function: Increases in oxytocin exacerbate OCD.
19. CBT can be used to treat OCD. Explain the two tools that CBT therapists use to address OCD symptoms.
⬢Extinction and response prevention (ERP) = Expose clients to the stimulus that trigger the anxiety conditioned responses but prevent them from producing the compulsive behavior. ⬢Cognitive therapy to help the client understand and handle the obsessions and compulsions.
20. Explain how MAO inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and SSRIs are used to treat depression symptoms. What is the problem with each of them? If you went to the doctor today for depression, which type of antidepressant are you most likely to get? Whi
MAO inhibitors: cheese effect: cant have sheese cure meats and chocolate –Effective in reducing symptoms of depression. –Risk of very serious interactions with diet that can produce deadly hypertension. –Last resource for people who do not react to other treatments. •Tricyclic antidepressants: less severe ^ –Extremely effective as antidepressants. –Interact with histamine system = Unpleasant side effects (sleepiness, dry mouth, constipation, weight gain, etc.) SSRIsand bupropion: most likely to gte –SSRIs have none of the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants. –SSRIs may affect sexual function, decrease in sexual drive-produce insomnia, and weight loss. –Bupropion(Wellbutrin) is a broad-acting drug which has minor side effects (e.g., no impact on sexual desire).
21. CBT is sometimes used to treat depression. What is the goal of this therapy? Is it effective?
People with anxiety worry about what will happen in the future. Depressed clients worry about what happened in the past. ⬢Goal of treatment = Make the client think more adaptively, which should lead to improved mood and behavior. ⬢CBT is most effective and results in less relapse when combined with pharmacological agents.
22. Talk about two alternative treatments for depression.
SAD is responsive to exposure to sunlight. ⬢Regular aerobic exercise (release of endorphins).
23. How is bipolar disorder treated? Is there a drug that alleviates both mania and depression? Can bipolar disorder be treated with CBT alone?
⬢Lithium is the treatment of choice. ⬢Some unpleasant side effects (thirst, tremors, excessive urination, memory problems). ⬢Lithium works better on mania than depression = Taken concurrently with antidepressants (SSRIs).
24. Why are bipolar disorder sufferers usually not compliant with treatment?
⬢Compliance with lithium therapy is problematic (bipolars enjoy the highs of mania). Unpleasant side effects: thirst, tremor, memory problem excessive urination
25. Read the section on depression and suicide in adolescents. Has the use of SSRIs to treat adolescent depression decreased or increased suicide rates in this age group?
THE SSRI DRUG SEEMED TO REDUCE SUICIDES IN TEENS Increases thought of suicide SSRI : prozac has been proven to be effectiv
26. Explain the difference between first- and second-generation antipsychotics, including effectiveness and side effects. Why do you think that a lot of schizophrenics refused to take the first-generation drugs?
FIRST GENERATION: DOPAMINE: EFFECTS POSITIVE NOT NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SECOND GENERATION: EFFECTIVE ON POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS People refuse to take first generation drugs because it only increases positive symptoms – it doesn’t eliminate negative ones
********************* Schizophrenia is usually diagnosed in the early 20s. Are newly diagnosed people expected to deteriorate with age? What factors influence prognosis?
Schizophrenics tend to improve as they age –Age of diagnosis (younger vs. older). –Sex (women vs. men). –Culture (developing vs. developed countries)
29. Why is it difficult to treat personality disorders?
⬢People rarely seek treatment for personality disorders. ⬢They often do not see their behavior as problematic.
30. Briefly explain the three stages of DBT treatment for borderline personality disorder.
Dialectical Behavior therapy: 1. Treatment for most extreme and dysfunctional behaviors (e.g., cutting) = Problem-solving and copying techniques. 2. Exploration of past traumatic experiences that may have triggered emotional problems. 3. Development of self-respect and independent problem solving
31. What is the prognosis for someone with borderline personality disorder? Specifically, are they expected to “get better” or “change to normal”? Are they prone to developing Axis I disorders?
Although borderline personality goes along with depressive and psychotic-like symptoms, it does not “become” depression or schizophrenia. •People who do not get intensive treatment often show interpersonal and occupational problems, substance abuse, and attempted suicide.
32. Why do people with borderline personality disorder rarely benefit from inpatient facilities?
Inpatient facilities do not give borderline patients the attention they seek = Attention-getting behaviors become problematic.
33. Can antisocial personality disorder be treated with drugs?
Various medications have failed to provide long-term improvement for antisocial personality
34. Behavioral therapy is sometimes reported as effective in controlling antisocial behavior. What is the shortcoming of this therapy?
Behavioral approaches based on punishment and reinforcement works well in institutional settings. ⬢Prognosis is poor. No therapy has shown to produce effective long-lasting changes in antisocial behavior. .. LEADING TO NO LASTING CHANGES IN ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR
35. Can cognitive therapy be used to treat antisocial personality disorder?
•Cognitive therapies attempt to challenge the belief that desiring something justifies any means to get it. In other words: cognitive therapy helps the patient to realize that just because they want something doesn’t mean they should do everything possible to get it
********************* what is the prognosis of someone diagnosed with antisocial personality does personality change with age?
Prognosis is poor. No therapy has shown to produce effective long-lasting changes in antisocial behavior. ⬢Antisocial behavior tends to decrease with age. ⬢However, egocentrism, callousness, and manipulativeness remain unchained with age
37. What type of medication is used to treat ADHD? Why do they seem to work?
Ritalin: regulate arousal level by effecting multiple neurotransmitters Ritalin increases positive behaviors like: following rules, paying attention,, positive peer interaction etc. Decrease negative symptoms/; non compliance, conduct problems, verbal interaction, and interuption
38. Explain how behavioral treatments are used in both ADHD and autism. What are their limitations?
ADHD: Aims to reinforce positive behavior and punish negative behavior PROBLEMS: treatment is intensive and time consuming- effects may not generalize beyond clinic and classroom Therapists advocate combining medication and behavioral therapy Autism: autistic children exhibit extreme behaviors and are oblivious to rewards such as praise and small praises that typically developing children would respond positively to Applied behavioral analysis: intensive treatment for autism based on the principles of operant conditioning- behaviors that are reinforced should increase in frequency while behaviors that are not inforced should be extinguished ABA: m&ms, snickers, bubbles
39. Have pharmacological treatments been used with autism?
Serotonin SSRI drugs: in some children with autism, drug reduces repetitive motor behavior and self injury , and improves social interaction Oxytocin: important hormone for bonding between mothers and infants, may help with social functioning in inividuals with autism
40. What is the prognosis for ADHD and autism?
Autism: BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES PREOVEN TO BE ⬢ many patients with autism tend to have severe social difficulty into adulthood and unable to live and work independently ⬢ Early intervention is important and can allow for more effective treatment ADHD: CAN BENEFIT FROM VARIOUS APPROACHES RIDALIN AND ADDERAL ⬢ Effective treatment early in life ⬢ Can result in liklihood of dropping out of school, low socioeconomical level, continued patterns of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, increased risk of other psychiatric disorders
3. Explain the construct of self-concept. What type of information does it contain?
3. Explain the construct of self-concept. What type of information does it contain?
5. Define self-esteem. Is it correlated with “personal goodness” or “personal success”? What is the relationship between self-esteem and social comparisons?
Evaluative aspect of self-concept. •Not necessarily correlated to happiness or success. Many criminals have high self-esteem. •We evaluate our own actions, abilities, and beliefs by CONTRASTING them with other people’s.
6. Explain the “better than average” effect.
•People show favoritism for anything associated with themselves. •Most people describe themselves as “above average”= overestimation of one’s abilities, skills, and competencies.
********************* It is often said that people like better their image on the mirror than the way they actually look. Is there some psychological truth to this statement? (If you read the chapter, you should know the answer to this question.)
mere exposure effect: the more your exposed to something the more you like it⬦ which do you see more your reversed mirror image or you actual images
8. Define attitudes and explain the three ways in which attitudes can be formed.
Attitude =A person’s general and lasting manner of responding to other people or situations. Mere exposure effect = We tend to have positive attitudes toward things that are highly familiar. .. more exposed to •Some attitudes can be learned through conditioning (e.g., advertisement). •Social norms determine attitudes about certain things (e.g., food).
9. What is the relationship between attitudes and behavior?
Attitudes predict general patterns of behavior = Attitudes acquired through experience are the most predictive of behavior.
********************* Explain the concept of cognitive dissonance. Why does it occur?
Psychological state caused by contrast in attitudes and behavior.. causes change and reevaluation
11. Cognitive dissonance is related to three processes: Attitude change, post decisional dissonance, and effort justification. Explain each of them and produce one example. Attitude change: behavior
Attitude change: behavior change will lead to attitude change to resolve dissonance Participants paid $1 or $20 on how pleasurable a boring task was Decisional dissonance: hold positive aspects on the option you chose and negative aspects of what you didn’t choose Effort justification: justify type of pain embarrassment or effort because a choice or commitment you made caused it
12. Why do college students wishing to join certain groups put up with hazing? Is it problematic for their future view of the group?
Requiring people to undergo embarassing or difficult rights of passage makes membership seem more valuable and the group more cohesive Experience dissonance.. why would I put my self through this⬦ deflate dissonance by inflating the importance of the group to justify initiation
13. What is the “foot-in-the-door” phenomenon?
If you want someone to do you a huge favor, start by asking them for a small favor and keep pushing gradually
14. What makes for a persuasive message? Explain the five components of persuasive messages.
⬢Persuasion =Active and conscious effort to change attitudes through the transmission of a message. ⬢Effective persuasive messages are those that people pay attention to, understand, find convincing, and can remember. Source, message, channels, receiver, target behavior
15. Think about any ad on TV. Do they use psychological principles to make the message persuasive?
Yes, attractive credible source Logical or positive message Channels of communication:Face to face magazine TV Receiver.. whos watching Target behavior are you gonna be persuaded
16. How is our behavior affected by the nonverbal behavior of others?
Facial expressions (smiles, eye contact, etc.) ⬢Body language (posture, gait, etc.)
17. Define attribution and explain the two types of attributions discussed in class.
Inference about the causes of behavior. –Internal (personal) attributions =The behavior was caused by the subject’s traits, abilities, or dispositions. –External (situational) attributions =The behavior was caused by something in the environment.
*********************. What are the fundamental attribution error and the self-serving bias? Are these universal phenomena (i.e., are they seen in all cultures?
–Fundamental attribution error =The behavior of others must reflect personal dispositions. –Self-serving bias = We tend to take personal credit for our successes and blame others for our failures.
19. What are stereotypes? How do they change the way we view the world? Do we consciously use stereotypes?
•Beliefs based on a person’s membership in a certain group rather than the person’s behavior. •Stereotypes are cognitive schemas that makes us attend more to information that confirm them and less to information that disconfirm them.
20. What are self-fulfilling prophecies?
a prophecy declared as truth when it is actually false may sufficiently influence people, either through fear or logical confusion, so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the once-false prophecy. * worrying enough about something that your worrying actually causes it to happen
21. What are prejudice and discrimination?
Prejudice leads to discrimination: Prejudice= negative judgments of people due to their group membership. ⬢Discrimination= unjustified and inappropriate treatment of people due to prejudice.
Prejudice leads to discrimination: Prejudice= negative judgments of people due to their group membership. ⬢Discrimination= unjustified and inappropriate treatment of people due to prejudice.
We tend to view our ingroup as more positive than the outgroup (leads to ingroup favoritism). ⬢We tend to view the outgroup as less diverse than the ingroup
23. Explain the relationship between cooperation and group harmony.
Cooperation can reduce prejudice and promote group harmony
25. Explain the concepts of social facilitation and social loafing. When do groups enhance or impair performance? When do groups result in more or less commitment to a task?
Social facilitation = The mere presence of others enhances performance. –Simple/repetitive tasks vs. complex tasks. •Social loafing = People work less hard when in a group than when working alone.
27. Explain how the concept of group polarization determines group decision-making. Make sure you define the concepts of risk-shift and groupthink.
•Deindividuation= Being in a group can make people less self-aware (low attention to personal standards). –Crowd behavior –Anonymity
32. Describe Zimbardo’s prison study. Page 524
Stamford prison study: study designed to test effects of social roles: random stable college students selected to be prison guards or prisoners, but it off after 6 days due to rapid behavior change Speed at which college students that could be transformed into social roles even when they are brutal or sadistic
37. What is bystander apathy? Why does it occur?
•Bystander apathy = People are less likely to help others when in a group than when alone. •Why? –Diffusion of responsibility. –People fear making social blunders in ambiguous situations. –People are less likely to help when they are anonymous. –What is the cost of helping
26. What is deindividuation? How does it relate to destructive behavior of groups?
being in group can make people less self aware (low attention to personal standards)
28. Describe Asch’s studies on conformity.
group asked to look at line and then look at other lines and wee which one is similar group of people clued in that give the wrong answers on purpose and people that are clueless when people that are in on it give wrong answer it makes clueless people agree even though they know its the wrong answer-- conformity conformity-- go with group
29. What are social norms? How do social comparisons affect people’s behavior
social norms: standard of conduct expected in a social group in ambiguous situations people tend to compare their reactions and behavior with those around them to make a decision
********************* Define the process of conformity. What factors attenuate conformity?
altering ones opinion or behavior to \"go with the group\" affected by: groups smaller than three having allies who dissent
********************* Define compliance. Describe the foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, lowballing, and reasoning techniques to get people to comply with one’s requests.
compliance: tend to agree with things requested by others foot in the door- get someone to comply with small request and they cant disagree with large one because they are related.. will be considered hypocrite door in the face- more likely to agree with small request after disagreeing with large because they feel guilty lowballing- start with getting someone to agree to small request and keep getting bigger and bigger and asking for more and more.. take baby steps.. ex: curfew
33. Describe Milgram’s studies on obedience to authority.
shock experiment: obedience increases with personal contact and removal of authority figure each participant was instructed to shock someone in another room ... fekt bad- wanted to quit but obeyed experimenter second,they were instructed to shock someone next to them. authority figure encouraged more shocks but participant couldnt bear to see the person in pain right before their eyes.. fewer obeyed in this situation most people will obey hideous orders given by authority figures unless they feel that they are personally responsible
34. Define obedience and explain under which situations obedience may not be seen (relate to Milgram’s studies).
compliance with authority decreases with personal contact and elimination of authority figure
35. What is aggression? How does aggression relate to frustration and culture?
behavior produced with intent of harming someone frustration and culteure influences agression

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