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Learning exam 2


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2 Types of associative learning
Instrumental and classical conditioning
Instrumental learning/conditioning
Conditioning that occurs when we learn about the consequences of our behavior and our behavior subsequently increases or decreases

-Stimulus-response learning
EL Thorndike
Interested in studying intelligence in cats, esp. in puzzle-like situations
Puzzle boxes
box in which animal has to press a lever or some similar action to get out
Thorndike puzzle box experiment
First escape-->cat accidentally activates solution to get out b/c is in panicked state

Subsequent escapes-->less time to get out ea. time
The Law of Effect
If a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a positive/satisfying event, then the association between the S and R is strengthened
-if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by an aversive/annoying event, the association between S and R is weakened
Discrete trial procedures
instrumental response only occurs one time per trial
eg. puzzle box, T-maze, straight maze
Free-operant procedures
animal can make as many instrumental responses as it wants
eg. bar pressing, Skinner box
appetitive outcome
pleasant outcome/consequence
aversive outcome
unpleasant outcome/consequence
Four instrumental conditioning procedures
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Omission Training
Postive reinforcement
Instrumental response brings about an appetitive consequence
e.g. giving a dog a treat for sitting, kissing and verbally praising an autistic child for following a command to stand up
-INCREASES probability of response
Instrumental response brings about an aversive consequence
e.g. spanking a child for misbehaving, putting a puppy in its crate for chewing the carpet
-DECREASES probability of response
Negative reinforcement
Instrumental response brings about avoidance/escape of an aversive outcome
eg. -avoidance--study to AVOID failing a test
-escape--apologize to ESCAPE time out

-INCREASES probability of response
Omission training
Instrumental response prevents something pleasant from happening
eg. If you do X, then you can't go to the amusement park
DECREASES the probability of response
4 Basic elements of Instrumental conditioning
3.Relationship btw Response and Outcome
4. Stimulus
The Instrumental Response
Can reinforce an existing response OR create and reinforce new responses
How do you train a rat to press a lever in a Skinner Box?
Multiple phases:
1. Magazine training
2. Shaping
Magazine training
Relies on classical conditioning to teach rat that food comes from magazine

Click of magazine (CS) + Food (US)

Click-->hanging out at food cup (CR)
Reward successive approximations of the instrumental response eg. rearing on hind legs near bar, sniffing bar, touching bar, biting bar
Measures of IR
Cumulative record
Cumulative record
-measure of free-operant procedure
-every time org makes a response, stair-step on CR curve recorded
-allows researcher to take note of changes over time
-previous response carries over, but cannot go down
Steeper slope on CR
faster rate of responding
Flat line on CR
no response
Stereotyped instrumental responding
Typically, instrumental conditioning causes stereotyped instrumental responding, but you can train variability in responding
*Pigeon study-->
-given 2 lighted keys to peck, btw the two had to make an 8 peck sequence
-over time, birds began to make same pattern of response
-when made reinforcement contingent on not responding in the same sequence each time for 50 trials, pigeons learned variability
-Conclusion=without explicit variability training, behavior becomes stereotyped over time
Relevance or belongingness in instrumental conditioning
In instrumental conditioning, certain responses are more easily conditioned than others
eg. Thorndike-->decided to see if could train cat to yawn (IR) to be released from box (reinforcer)
-could do it, but hard to maintain b/c yawning is incompatible with release from box
-response doesn't fit with outcome
Breland and Breland
fully believed in behaviorism and operant conditioning
-thought instinctive drift goes against operant conditioning, gets worse as time goes on
-can design operant conditioning procedures that go with the flow of natural behavior eg. digging, mazes, passive avoidance
Instinctive drift
tendency of conditioned behavior to drift towards instinctive behavior
-when conditioning and instinctive behavior compete, conditioning often, but not always loses
2 features of the reinforcer (outcome) that are important
quantity and quality
more aversive stimulus works better than less aversive stimulus in punishment
-there is an upper limit=too aversive doesn't work because get blocking of learning (distracting)
bigger is better, but not to the point that it is overwhelming
Hutt study
-had low-quality, medium-quality, and high-quality reinforcer
-small, medium, and large amounts
-rats gave most responses for large reward regardless of quantity
-highest number of bar presses for sweet, high quality liquid, BUT will work harder for a larger amount of a lower-quality reinforcer
Mellgren study
-measured running speed in rats through straight-alley maze
-Train=one group gets 2 pellets, one group gets 22 pellets
-Test=split each group again, within each group give one half 2 pellets and one half 22 pellets
22-22: ran fast but little improvement
2-2:stayed mostly the same
22-2:ran slower than themselves and those who always got small reward (negative contrast effect)
2-22: ran faster than themselves and those who always got big reward (positive contast effect)
Conclusion=prior experience influences how quantity and quality of a reinforcer are judged
Response-reinforcer relationship
-consists of 2 INDEPENDENT factors
1) temporal relation
2) causation
Temporal relationship
aka Contiguity
-how much time passes between response and reinforcer
-the closer together, the stronger the relationship
-high contiguity leads to better conditioning
-superstitions=high contiguity, low contingency
-aka Contingency
-the extent to which the response is necessary and sufficient to bring about the reinforcer
-grades in high school and acceptance to grad school=high contingency, low contiguity
Secondary conditioned reinforcer
-exception to temporal contiguity rule
-CS paired with reinforcer eg. whistle + food
Causality-superstition experiment
Skinner--> food given to pigeons every 15 seconds
-pigeons making weird responses before food delivered
-"superstition" reevaluated as species-specific behavior
-evidence of timing/anticipation in animals
Seligman and Overmier
effect of controllability/non-controllability on learning in animals
-Phase 1=exposure--
Group E: dog shocked unless rotated wheel to escape shock, therefore shock escapable

Group Y: group yoked to another group's responses, unable to escape shocks. get same frequency and duration of shocks at group E

Group R=no shock at any time, exposure to context

Phase 2=escape/avoidance training, all three groups trained on an escapable shock procedure

Group E: learned escape/avoidance procedure
Group Y: SLOW to learn escape/ avoidance procedure
Group R:learned escape/avoidance procedure

Conclusion=prior exposure to unescapable aversive stimulus leads to difficulty in learning escape response (learned helplessness effect)
learned helplessness hypothesis
prior experience with uncontrollable aversive stimuli leads subject to conclude that their behavior is independent of the outcome, and it will continue to be independent in the future
Spinal cord transection
shows organisms show learned helplessness without brain input
Schedules of reinforcement
-when and how often a response is followed by a reinforcer
1. how quickly animal learns
2. extinction
3. response rate
4. response pattern
continuous reinforcement
-every behavior reinforced, 1:1 ratio of response to reinforcement
-not common in real life
partial reinforcement
not every response reinforced
ratio schedule
reinforcement depends on number of responses an organism makes
-organism controls number of reinforcers it gets
fixed ratio schedule
number of responses always stays the same in order to get one reinforcer
Variable ratio schedule
refers to average number of responses to get one reinforcer, but can vary from trial to trial
eg. slot machine, serving pineapple cake in dining hall
Rate of response and pattern of response for CRF`
moderate rate of responding, steady pattern with no predictable pauses
Rate of response and pattern of response for FR
higher rate of responding, stair pattern of responding because of post-reinforcement pauses followed by ratio run
Rate of response and pattern of response for VR
high rate of responding but no predictable pauses so kind of a steady pattern
ratio strain
ratio requirement is so high and so fast that animal pauses during ratio run
-animals may stop all together if ratio is too high
-higher ratios mean longer post-reinforcement pauses
Interval schedule of reinforcement
response is reinforced only when it occurs after a certain amount of time has passed
-animal does NOT control when it gets a reinforcer
Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
reinforcer becomes available after a fixed amount of time has passed, but response must still be made in order to get reinforcer
eg. dining hall=meals served at certain times
-morphine pump=every ten minutes, can get dose of meds
Variable interval schedule of reinforcement
reinforcer is available on average a certain amount of time (eg. 3 mins)
-amounts of time btw reinforcers becoming available vary
eg. stoplights
Rate of response and pattern of response in variable interval schedule
high rate of response, steady pattern of response
Rate of response and pattern of response in fixed interval schedule
slower/moderate rate of response, scallop pattern of response
-animals get good at timing, start anticipating payoff and respond more (interval run)
Difference btw rates of responding in ratio schedule vs. interval schedule
higher rates of responding with ratio schedule because animals know that they control the payoff, whereas with interval schedules timing is the key to payoff
limited hold on reinforcement
limited availability of reinforcer in an interval schedule e.g. cafeteria closes and you don’t get food if you don’t go within a certain period of time
Differential reinforcement of high rates of responding (DRH)
only get reinforced for responding at a high rate e.g. running wheel with rat who has electrode in brain→when run at critical speed, get brain stimulation, if slower, stimulation stops
Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL)
only get reinforced for responding at a low rate
Extinction of a previously reinforced response (Instrumental conditioning)
stopping reinforcement
spontaneous recovery
reoccurrence of an extinguished response due to the passage of time since extinction stopped, shows it is hard to undo learning
Two types of changes with extinction
behavioral and emotional
-• Intensity of behavioral and emotional change depends on what schedule of reinforcement you get→those on partial reinforcement schedule take longer to undergo extinction (partial reinforcement extinction effect, PREE) and involves fewer frustration and aggressive responses
Behavioral change with extinction
extinction burst—increase in intensity or frequency of the response immediately following the introduction of extinction
Emotional change with extinction
frustration and aggression eg. temper tantrums
those on partial reinforcement schedule take longer to undergo extinction
Explanations for PREE
Amsel's Frustration Theory
Capaldi's Sequential Theory
Discrimination hypothesis
Discrimination hypothesis
easier to “notice” extinction coming from CR schedule than from a PR schedule (change more dramatic for CR)
o In the lab: 3 groups of animals=CR→extinction, PR→extinction, PR→CR→extinction, found that third group still took longer to extinguish even though current reinforcement schedule was CR because had PR exposure in learning history
Amsel's Frustration Theory
during PR, animals/subject get frustrated, but gets paid off/rewarded before they give up→learn that if you persist through frustration you ultimately get rewarded, so take longer to extinguish
eg. If you eventually give in to a child’s temper tantrum, he/she learns that if they just keep doing it long enough, they will get rewarded
Capaldi's Sequential Theory
o During extinction, animal remembers back to PR and remember that every once and a while got paid off, so nonreinforced trials become signal for reinforcement and subject comes to expect reward following nonreinforced trial, therefore take longer to extinguish, especially if interval between reinforcement and nonreinforcement is longer→ not focusing on frustration, focusing on memory
What is learned during IC according to Thorndike?
Thorndike argued that an S-R association is learned during IC, but O does not enter directly into association with R
eg. see bar, press bar
R-O association
subject associates response with outcome, eg. the reason an animal presses the bar is because it associates it with getting a food pellet
Reinforcer Devaluation Studies
-put rat in a box with lever that can press to left or right
-S=bar, R=press bar, O=differs with response

Phase 1=train rats that press left=food, press right=sugar water

Phase 2=Devaluation
-Food + LiCl (makes animal sick)

Test=only press right for sugar water

Conclusion=animals have association of a particular response with a particular outcome, and can remember and choose based on past experience
S-R-O learning
hierarchical manner where S mediates relationship btw R-O
eg. context A or context B is a stimulus that mediates the relationship btw bar-press and food/shock
What makes something a good reinforcer
Thorndike-->something pleasurable is a good reinforcer because it reinforces beh (circular logic)
-Drive reduction theory
Drive reduction theory
an upset in homeostasis will cause a drive state that motivates beh and anything that reduces a drive state is reinforcing
Drawbacks to DRT
things are reinforcing that are not related to bio drive
-would have to come up with an infinite number of drives to explain reinforcers
-some reinforcers actually increase drive eg. drug taking
use access to female rats as reward for maze
-interrupt during copulation
-still reinforcing even though increases sex drive
reinforced rats for running in T maze
baited one arm of maze with reward
G1=one big pellet
G2=four little pellets
-should be equally reinforcing, but four small pellets more reinforcing
2 sources of motivation
primary and incentive motivation
primary motivation
induced by biological drive state
secondary motivation
induced by reinforcer/properties of reinforcer

Justinian the Conqueror
550 AD

The Archangel Michael
Leaf of a Diptych
Early 6th century

Jacob Wrestling the Angel
from the Vienna Genesis
Early 6th century AD
Tempera and silver on dyed vellum

6th century AD
Encaustic on panel
Mount Sinai

Virgin and Child Enthroned Between Saints and Angels
Late 6th century AD
Encaustic on panel
Mount Sinai

The Crucifixion and Iconoclasts
from the Khludov Psalter
845 AD
Tempera on vellum

David Composing the Psalms
from the Paris Psalter
950 AD
Tempera on vellum

The Harbaville Triptych
Late 10th century AD

Christ Crowning Romanos and Eudokia
949 AD

Dome mosaics
Church of the Dormition
11th century AD

The Crucifixion
Church of the Dormition
11 century AD

1310 AD

Tara brooch
8th century
Gilt, bronze, glass, enamel
County Meath, Ireland

Golden buckle
from Sutton Hoo ship burial
7th century AD

Hinged clasps
Sutton Hoo ship burial
7th century AD
Gold, garnet, enamel

Purse cover
Sutton Hoo burial ship
7th century AD
Gold, garnets, enamels

Animal head
from the Oseberg Ship burial
834 AD

Symbol of St. Matthew
from Book of Durrow
680 AD
Tempera on vellum

Cross page
from the Lindisfarne Gospels
700 AD
Tempera on vellum

St. Matthew
from the Lindisfarne Gospels
700 AD
Tempera on vellum

Ezra Restoring the Bible
from the Codex Amiatinus
8th century
Tempera on vellum

Chi Rho Iota page
from the Book of Kells
800 AD
Ink and pigments on vellum

Equestrian statue of a Carolingian ruler
9th century
Psychosocial influence on stress
Negative stress/emotions disrupt basic biological processes, which may lead to physical disorders/disease
Hans Seyle
discovered that injection process triggered physical problems in rats regardless of placebo, called this stress
-led to study of stress physiology
Seyle's theory
body's response to continued stress=
1) Alarm
2) Resistance
3) Exhaustion

-combo of 3 stages=General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
response to immediate danger/threat
mobilize various coping mechanisms to respond
body suffers permanent damage/death (occurs if stress lasts too long)
Stress, the HPA Axis and the Limbic System
Hypothalamus=next to limbic system
-contains hippocampus
-hippocampus=extremely sensitive to cortisol
-when stimulated by cortisol, hippocamus mediates feedback loop between limbic system and HPA axis by turning off stress response
Why Hippocampus' mediation of the feedback loop btw the HPA Axis and Limbic System is important
-overproduction of stress hormones kills off nerve cells in the hippocampus
-leads to a decrease in hippocampal functioning
-can lead to dementia, susceptibility to infectious disease
studied Harvard sophomores, followed over 30 years
-found that those who developed psychological disorders/highly stressed became chronically ill or died at a higher rate
-suggests that stress related causes of psychological disorders may play a role in later development of physical disorders
Cohen et al.
exposed people to cold virus, found life stress directly related to who got sick
-later proved link between stress and sociability
Depression and immune functioning
depression lowers immune functioning
-brings with it low self-efficacy and risky behavior
-can lead to stress
-stress has effect on immune system
Autoimmune disease
too many helper T cells (T4 cells)
-makes immune system overreactive
-begins attacking healthy cells
-leaves body open to attack by antigens
Ader and Cohen
rats learned through CC to supress immune system
-proved connection between nervous system and immune system
-proved effect of environmental cues on the immune system
terminal illness resulting from HIV virus
-too many T4 cells-->overr. IS--> open to attack from antigens
-study showed that those with AIDS who received CB stress management had less anxiety/depression, increased IS functioning
Speigel Cancer Studies
86 women with terminal breast cancer
-Therapy group survived longer (3 yrs vs. 18 months)
-points to psychosocial factors contributing to course/development of cancer
Systolic blood pressure
pressure when the heart is pumping blood
Diastolic blood pressure
pressure between beats when the heart is at rest
Blood pressure measure
Systolic BP/Diastolic BP
major health concern
-can lead to stroke, heart disease, kidney disease
-blood pressure goes up when blood vessels leading to major organs constrict
-forces blood to central muscles, forces heart to pump harder
Essential hypertension
Hypertension with no specific verifiable cause
2 psychological factors related to hypertension
hostility, impatience
-related to activation of sympathetic nervous system
-causes blood vessels to constrict
-highly responsive to stress
Coronary heart disease
blockage of arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle (myocardium)
Angina pectoris
chest pain resulting from partial abstruction of the arteries
occurs when fatty substance/plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing an obstruction
deficiency of blood to a body part resulting from constricted arteries
Myocardial Infarction
death of heart tissue when a specific artery becomes clogged with plaque
Western Collaborative Group Study
found that those with Type A beh 2X as likely to develop CHD than Type Bs
-among younger men, 6X as likely
Framingham Heart Study
Type As 2X as more likely than Type Bs to develop CHD
-males more likely if of high SES, white-collar jobs
-females more likely if of low SES
Japanese men study
rate of Type A beh lower
-sociocultural factors important
Anger and CHD
decreases pumping efficiency
-leads to CHD, CHD risk factors/signs in long run
Anxiety/Depression and CHD
predictor of CHD
-may be that neurobio activation resulting from chronic negative emotions contributes to CHD
chronic pain
pain that does not decrease over time, even after you have healed
-usually in muscles, tendons, joints
-can be headaches/vascular pain
factors affecting chronic pain
-sense of control
-efforts to cope
-preexisting anxiety/negative outlook
-social support
phantom limb pain
thought to occur because of changes in the sensory cortex
-literally, lack of nerve strength
-achy, low energy, fatigue ridden condition prevalent in 19th cent.
-shares many features with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Sharpe's model
CFS=result of high acheivement oriented stress, misinterpretation of symptoms leading to beh. avoidance, helplessness, depression, and frustration
-perpetuated by chronic inactivity
-CBT but not drugs have proven effective
Key features of major depressive episode
-extremely depressed mood lasting more than 2 weeks
-cognitive symptoms (worthlessness, indecisiveness)
-disturbed physical functions (altered sleep, appetite, energy)
-loss of interest
-physical changes (somatic/vegetative symptoms)
Key features of mania
-abnormally exaggerated elation, joy, euphoria
-extreme pleasure in activities
-little need for sleep
-rapid/incoherent speech
-flight of ideas
-grandiose plans
-irritability toward end of episode
-must last at least one week
less severe manic episode that does not cause impairment in social/occupational functioning
unipolar mood disorder
experience of only depression or mania
-almost always a chronic condition
bipolar mood disorder
alternating between depression and mania
mixed episode
manic symptoms mixed with depressive symptoms
-agitation, anxiety, depression, dysphoria, irritability are common
dysthymic disorder
same symptoms as MDD, but milder
-persistently depressed mood that continues for at least 2 years, during which patient cannot be symptom free for more than 2 months at a time
-lasts longer than MDD, most who suffer from it thought to go on to have an MDE
double depression
suffer from both MDD and dsythymic disorder
-dysthymic disorder develops first, MDEs occur later in life
-many with double depression never recover from dysthymia, high rates of relapse
Mean ages of onset for MDD
not in treatment=25
in treatment=29
-appear to be decreasing
Pathological grief reaction
-intrusive memories
-distressingly strong yearning for a loved one
-avoidance of people/places that remind person of the loved one
-can be predicted by past history of depressive episodes
-risk goes up a year after the loss
Bipolar I Disorder
MDEs alternate with full blown manic episodes
-average age of onset=18
Bipolar II Disorder
MDEs alternate with hypomania
-average age of onset=22
Cyclothymic Disorder
chronic alternation of mood elevation and depression that doesn't reach the severity of manic/MD episode
-tend to be in one mood state or the other for a period of years
-strong risk of developing BPD I/II
atypical features for depressive episodes/dsythymia
-consistent oversleeping/overeating
-leads to weight gain
-also occurs in SAD
-interest to some things
-more symptoms, more severe symptoms, more suicide attempts, more comorbidity
melancholic features of MDE/manic episode
severe somatic symptoms: early morning waking, weight loss, loss of libido
-excessive/inappropriate guilt
psychotic features of MDE/manic episode
-somatic delusions (eg. believe body is rotting/deteriorating into nothingness)
-auditory hallucinations (eg. voices)
mood incongruent hallucinations
associated with poor response to treatment
-greater impairment
-fewer weeks with minimal symptoms
rapid cycling (BPD I/II)
more than 4 episodes in one year, cycling quickly
-higher probability of suicide attempts
-doesn't respond well to standard treatment
Gender and mood disorders
Women 2X as likely as men to have MDD/dysthymia
-BPD distributed evenly over both genders
-overall, prevalence is high
Children/Adolescents and mood disorders
-Deppr. disorders occur less in children than adults, but rise during adoles.
-depression more frequent than adults in adoles.
-occurs more in girls, more severe
-mania below age of 9 tends to be written off as hyperactivity
-children, esp. boys, tend to be aggressive during depressive episodes
-MDD/BPD in children predict additional disorders, substance abuse, other probs in adulthood
Elderly and mood disorders
18-20% of nursing home residents may suffer deppr./MDEs
-hard to diagnose
-milder symptoms more common
-50% Alzheimers comorbid with depression, 33% anxiety
-depression can contribute to physical disease/death
relationship of depression/anxiety disorders
almost all depressed patients anxious, not all anxiety patients depressed
-many symptoms of negative affect overlap
-suggests ADs and DDs on a spectrum/continuum of disorders
-depression usually follows anxiety

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