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IB History Midterm Review


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Failures of Mao
collectivization, the Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution
Germany's Fears leading into WWI
balance of power would not be in their favor, no great naval power (Weltpolitik - wanted to catch up to GBritain), surrounded by the alliances, Russian military expenditure, Social Democrats were gaining in the Reichstag, and that the right time to have war would pass.
Balkan Powder Keg
Bosnian Serbs wanted independence from Austria, Serbia wanted to annex Bosnia, and Russia wanted control of the Balkans
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
Japanese excuse for declaring war on China
Causes of WWI
assassination of Franz Ferdinand, nationalism, the alliance system, imperialism, militarism
1st and 2nd Moroccan Crisis
wanted to scare France but failed.
Failures of Castro
Moncada revolt, didn't get Soviet nukes in Cuban Missile Crisis, sugar-for-rice deal with China, milk over beef production, no economical growth, malnutrition
Results of WWII
creation of Israel, war crimes trials, the Cold War, denazification, end of European domination, Marshall Plan, Lend-Lease Aid
Failures of Stalin
Five-Year plans focused too much on heavy industry, collectivization
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic was born out of the Treaty of Versailles, a treaty which caused German resentment.The constitution contained an article 48 a measure which allowed the President to rule by decree without the consent of the Reichstag. This allowed Hitler to take full power.
Importance of technological developments
dreadnought arms race, trench warfare, U-boats, aircraft carriers, Blitzkrieg, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, D-Day
March on Rome
Mussolini's attempt to seize power; king asked Mussolini to become premier in a coalition cabinet if the Fascists would only have three posts
NEP (New Economic Policy)
free trade, collectivization stopped, light industry was revived, food production increased, stabilized the economy
Austria-Hungary's fears leading into WWI
They would look weak if they didn't attack Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, a strong and independed Serbia would rouse other ethnicities in A-H (Pans-Slavic Movement), and they would lose their status as a great power if they did not ally themselves with Germany.
Britain's fears leading into WWI
The policy of Weltpolitik would make Germany a greater naval power than Britain (provoked GBritain to create more dreadnoughts), German dominance on the continent of Europe, loss of colonial empire (if Germany had a larger navy than GBritain), France would make an alliance with Germany if GBritain didn't maintain an alliance with them.
war communism
failure of Lenin; collectivization, complete control of factories
April Thesis
Lenin's criticism of the provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet
the "majority"; the communist party led by Lenin
Triple Entente
alliance between France, Russia, and Britain
Italy's Fears leading into WWI
They would lost their status as a great power, so they made an alliance with Germany and A-H, making the Triple Alliance.
KMT, Nationalists, right-wing; led by Chiang Kai-shek
Red Army
Mao's army; was to agitate and organize the masses
Castro: Consolidation of Power
Would make speeches and ask the public questions like direct democracy, imprison/execution of anyone against regime, show trials, made it seem as if Raul (brother) and other successors would be more radical than he, suspended political parties (but promised elections), CDRs (Committees for Defense of the Revolution) placed on every street, villiage, and block, basically like a "neighborhood watch" for the regime, foreign priests were expelled, trade unions infiltrated by communist, and security placed several bugs.
Failures of Mussolini
Battle for Births, Battle of the Lira, Battle for Grain
Long March
Chiang Kai-shek attacked the communists; Red Army escaped to the North base
Successes of Mao
Yenan Terror, mass rallies, Marriage Law, health reforms, Hundred Flowers Campaign, Anti-Rightist Campaign
France's Fears leading into WWI
Franco-Prussian war unified and strengthened Germany, Germany and Austria-Hungary are now allies (causing France to ally with Russia, creating the Dual Entente), Germany's fleet, lose status as great power, and an attack by Germany.
Failures of Lenin
War communism
group responsible for administering Stalin's Five-Year plans
Triple Alliance
alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy
Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to accept everything as their fault, reparations, limited German military, Rhineland was demilitarized
Successes of Mussolini
March on Rome, Acerbo Law, consolidated power, Battle for Land
Reasons for Castro's Success
Unpopular Batista regime: tortured/killed sympathizers, poorly led army, cruelty embarrassed even the Americans. Castro was effective, charismatic leader, enthusiastic support of many people, was an alternative to Castro.
Successes of Lenin
Brest-Litovsk took Russia out of the war, Red Terror campaign got rid of opposition, NEP stabilized the economy
mass line
trained communists were sent to listen to the people in order to appeal and adapt their policies
Petrograd Soviet
an elected body (workers and soldiers) that worked in dual authority with the provisional government; had the actual power
League of Nations
an international organization to settle international disputes; possessed no armed forces of its own and had no power
Successes of Stalin
denounced rivals, gained and consolidated power, Five-Year plans allowed resistance to German invasion, free education and medical care, no unemployment, propoganda
Policy of Appeasement
policy of granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace; wanted to avoid war
policy that sought to make Germany a world power; tried to rival the British navy
Results of WWI
Versailles treaty, League of Nations, the Depression, disillusionment
WWI Militarism
Anglo-German naval arms race, Franco-German land arms race, technological advancements
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of the KMT (the Nationalists); appealed to the West
"lightening war", quick surprise bombing of cities
Successes of Castro
gained publicity during his trial, organized a revolutionary group in Mexico, guerilla warfare, met with foreign journalists, consolidated power, got Soviet assistance, nationalized all U.S. companies, Bay of Pigs, more rights for women and equality for blacks, free education and health services
Sino-Japanese War
CCP were efficient in guerrilla warfare and built up forces, but hardly fought in major battles; KMT military was weakened from fighting
Causes of WWII
appeasement, aggressive policies of Hitler and Mussolini, Great Depression, Versailles Treaty, failure of Weimar Republic, failure of the League of Nations
the minority party that opposed the Bolsheviks; wanted peaceful socialism; were disorganized
Schlieffen Plan
plan of quick mobilization to defeat France, then defeat of Russia
Japanese puppet state with the last boy emperor as the puppet
Marshall Mission
U.S. negotiated a cease-fire between KMT and CCP; KMT demilitarized many troops without helping them to integrate back into civilian life; the troops joined the CCP and gave them former Japanese weapon stockpiles

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