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unit 9 history


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the art of never backing down from a crisis, even if it meant pusing the nation to the brink of war.
song of a Presbyterian minister
deeply religious & fiercly anti-communist
helped Eisenhower propose, massive retailation, towards the soviet union in the event the ussr attack the us.

circled the ussr and china with american mili
John Foster Dulles
the New Look
this program would retire 500,000 soldiers and 100,000 sailors, but would increase the air force by 30,000 men.
massive retaliation
an instant nuclear attack "by any means and at places of our own choosing," in the event that the Soviet Union attacked any nation.
"Chance for Peace" Speech
speech made by Eisenhower few weeks after Stalin's death.

" An era ended with the death of Joseph Stalin," and eisenhower invited friendlier relations with the Soviet Union

closed with an appeal for nuclear disarmament.
radioactive fallout
made it possible to live hundreds of miles from a nuclear blast and still be killed.
Soviet launched satelite. first into space
missile gap
U.S. was running second in the space race. The U.S. was threatened by satellites they feared were capable of carrying weapons.
National Aeronautics Space Admin.

worked feverishly to close the missle gap.
National Securtiy Act
sreamlined the defense system and created the CIA and the National Security Council.

"CIA shall perform "functions and duties related to intelligence affecting national security as the National Security Council will direct."
Eisenhower Doctrine
policy where Eisen hower promised aid, both economic and military to pro-Western governments. This policy soon involved fighting communism and the Arab governments that did not join the Western Camp.
House Un-American Activities Committee
hearings that explored the issue of Communist influence in the New Deal
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
evaluated the loyalty of government employees.

3000 people resigned
212 people were fired
McCarran Act
made it ILLEGAL for Americans to engage in activities that would create a communist government.

REQUIRED communists organizations to register with the federal government.

esp. if worked in defense plans
or had no U.S. passport
witch hunt or word referred to the use of intimidateion and often unfounded accusations in the name of fighting communism.
self appointed doers of justice.
often vicious, and illegal
effort by conservative groups to brand people as Communists and PREVENT THEM FROM HOLDING JOBS.
John Henry Faulk
against blacklisting
was blacklisted/fired from CBS.
ordered lawsuit against AWARE and was awarded $3.5 million in damages.
The Hollywood Ten
group of actors, directors, and producers
would not testify against HUAC
called 1st and 5th amendment
held in contempt
year in jail... all blacklisted
residential areas outside the city
85% of new home construction took place
Billy Graham
popular Protestant minister who helped spread religious commitment with the aid of modern communications and attracted thousands of people throughout the United States with is evangelical campaigns.
developed the first oral vaccination for polio
Dr. Albert Sabin
developed the first effective vaccine against polio and became the medical hero of the 1950's
Dr. Jonas Salk
popularized the theory that early childhood experiences influence and individuals entire life.

wrote books for everyday problems with kids and the home

book second to the bible
Dr. Benjamin Spock
wrote the Feminine Mystique, that described the problem of women discrimation.

wanted equal rights, and to be more than housewives

National Organization for Women
Betty Friedan
criticisms of the suburban dream
lack of privacy
decline of individuality
missing minorities
television heroes of the 1950's
Buffalo Bob, Kukla, Fran, and Ollie, Lone Ranger, Hopalong Cassidy, and Captain video, also Miss Frances, the Mickey Mouse club, Captain Kangaroo, and Mr. Grean jeans.
Democratic candidate in the 1952 presidential election.

against Eisenhower/Nixon
Adlai Stevenson
Checker's speech
broadcasted speech made by Nixon who said that the $18,000 was not used improperly during his campaign, and this speech won him a wave of support from viewers.
election of 1952
eisenhower vs. adlai stevenson

win for the republican party(eisenhower)
Atomic Energy Act of 1954
made it possible for private companies to operate Nuclear Power plants.
Explorer 1
was the U.S.'s response to the Soviets "Sputnik"
hidden poverty
the invisible poor were so well hidden that many americans believed that the problem was totally eliminated.
had yearly incomes of $4,000 a year
40 % of all New York's welfare recipients
African American families
Operation Wetback
The deportation program that deported more than 3 million illegal immigrants from Mexico.
termination policy
the loss of hundreds of thousands of acres of Native American lands, to agricultural, lumber and mining interests.
Voluntary Relocation Program
provided moving expenses, help in finding houses and jobs, and temporary living expenses for Native Americans willing to leave their homes and lands.
What put 70% of APPALACHIAN COAL MINERS out of work by 1960?
drop in the demand for coal
increased use of machinery
Why did Mexican Americans rarely feel politically secure in the U.S.?
they were from a sovereign foreign state, and legally defined as aliens.

at any time the U.S. government or any official could stop any Mexican American on the street and demand proof of citizenship.
defacto segregation
segregation by fact not law
case that stood as leagal precedent for the "seperate but equal" doctrine
Plessy v. Ferguson
this case helped overturn school segregation and start integrating schools.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
African American student expelled from the University of Alabama after whites rioted to prevent her from remaining there.
Autherine Lucy
Central High School
9 blacks integrated into 2000 whites
needed 101st airborne to keep watch
after national gaurd left, the 9 kids were forced to leave the school under police protection.
Arkansas governor during Central High School integration.
Orval Faubus
43 yr. old African American woman who refused to give up her seat on a bus for a white man.

started a civil rights movement
Rosa Parks
boycott where African Americans refused to use the services of the bus company.

lasted nearly 400 days until blacks were finally granted equality on the buses.
Montgomery BUS boycott
nonviolent resistance
type of resistance where deomnstrations were carried out without fighting with authorities, even if provoked to do so.
Southern Christian Leadership Conferenc.

conducted workshops in nonviolent methods of resistance for civil rights activists. taught how to sit quietly while others jeered at them, called then names, and even spat on them.
type of nonviolent resistance where African Americans would usually sit in a restaurant of some sort until they were served.
civil disobedience
nonviolent resistance to unjust laws.
This couple raised concerns about USA security of classified information.

He was dismissed from the us army signal corp, which is the communications wing of the army, suspected of communist activity.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Who was David Greenglass?
the brother in law of Julius Rosenberg.
He owned an army surplus store and gave Rosenberg a job from 1946-1950.
What atomic physist worked on the Los Alamos Project, and with who?
Klaus Fuchs, with Rosenberg, and Greenglass.

later fuchs admitted he was in an atomic spy ring, when arrested in britain.
this lead to the arrest of Greenglass who tells on Rosenberg
Describe the execution of the Rosenbergs
Julius and his wife, who was arrested because of her knowledge of the spy ring, were accused of obtaining information on atomic weapons, fuses, and other military matters.
They are both killed in an electric chair.
what is fuchs and greenglasses punishment
fuchs-14 yr sentence in british jail
greenglass-1/2 of 15 yr. sentence in return for his testimony of Rosenberg
Alger Hiss
State Department Official who was accused by WHITTAKER CHAMBERS of being a communist along with wittaker.

key things against hiss- rolls of microfilm, and his tracement to a typewriter in the state department which may have been use in this caper.
what were the microfilm rolls named?
Pumpkin papers
hiss's final charges
a pergury conviction and sentenced to 5 yrs. in prison, but only serves 44 mos. unti his death.
where did McCarthy state the government esp. the state department was infested with communists
at a Republican Woman's Club in Wheeling, West Virginia
Dean Acheson
accused by McCarthy of covering up the communist activities in the state department.

Secretary of state
Who was an asian expert accused of promoting communism in China.
Owen Lattimore
Robert T. Stevens
Secretary of the army

had cooperated with Mc Carthy and tried to work with him but eventually reached a breaking point with all of the unsubstantiated claims the senator made.
Army Radar Lab at Fort Monmount, NJ
McCarthy focused his communist investigation at this site, and claimed the army was trying to obstruct his investigation.
Who was Roy Cohn
he was McCarthys attorney, who sought preferential treatment for his nephew, G.David Shine, who was in the army.
Josephy Welch
the army's attorney, who engaged in numerous verbal confrontations with McCarthy, esp. after one of his associates was accused of being communist.
What did the Senate vote to do to McCarthy after the hearings.
to censure him, no longer allow him to speak on the Senate floor.
silent generation?
college students were so docile they were dubbed, silent generation.

boring--tract homes, fins on every car, no individualism
Elvis Presley
21 yr. old, hip gyrating singer who sold $120 million worth of records and trinkets.
Charles Van Doren
a guy who was on the tv game show, TWENTY ONE, and was fed the answers through his headphones... first instance of national lying/swindling
Roger Banister
first man to run the mile in less than 4 minutes.
group of young men and women who dressed in black, had their own jargon, wrote poetry, played bongo, and met in coffee shops. didnt like confomity , and wanted individualism
Justice Earl Warren
was the first to strike down the separate but equal schools.

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