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US History- Mid Term Review


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Articles of Confederation
* Written 1776-1777, ratified 1781
*Under them the U.S. was a loose collection of independent states
Constitution:Members of Congress
Two Senators per state, number of Representatives dependent upon population
Shays' Rebellion
*1,100 Farmers angered by the high taxes in Mass. were led by Daniel Shays in an attempt to seize weapons from a state armory-1787
*As a result harsh debt laws were eased and business activity increased.
Land Ordinance of 1785
*Nothwest territory marked off into townships
*For each township 1 square mile would be set aside to support a public school
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
*Set up a plan of government for the NW Territory
*Congress would choose a governor and judges- as soon as 5000 free adult males lived there they could elect their own legislature
*Eventually could be carved into 3 to 5 separate states
*No slavery
Energetic delegates of the Constituntional Convention- Jefferson nicknamed
Great Compromise
*Under it congress would have two houses
*Preserved the idea of making the national government supreme
Large-State Plan
(The Virginia Plan)
*Under it national government would have 3 branches
*Gave more power to Congress
*Called for a Congress in which voting power was dependent upon population
New Jersey Plan
*Preserved the Principle that all states should have an equal voice (Equal Representation)
*Only one house for Congress
The Federalist Papers
A series of 77 essays in support of the constitution
Lousiana Purchase
*Nearly doubled size of U.S.
*Cost 15 million dollars
*leads to land democratization-giving more people the right to vote such as the middle class
Peaceful Coercion
*Jefferson put embargo on U.S. ships- stopped all trade because he didn't trust Americans
*New England was greatly effected
Nonintercourse Act
*Forbade trade with Great Britain or France, but opened trade with other countries
*Led to smuggling of goods
Macon's Bill #2
*Opened trade with Great Britian and France
*Whoever stopped impressing U.S. sailors fist, U.S. would put embargo on the other country
*French acted more quickly
Thomas Jefferson
*Balanced Budget- cut funding from military
*Expanded power of the president
*Retooling of Military-"Jeffs" boats
Judiciary Act of 1801
*Creates several Judge positions in Federal Government
*president appointed justices so it could be filled by their guys before president leaves
Samuel Chase
*Federal Judge who critisied people
*Was impeached but not removed
*Results in Judges being more unbiased
John Jay Treaty
*With Britain
*Laid down rules for increased trade
*Set deadline for British withdrawl from forts in the U.S.
*U.S. threatened to go to war with them if impressment of soldiers didn't stop
*Made U.S. more friendly with Great Britain
*So bad Spain thought U.S. had a secret alliance with G.B.
Pickney Treaty
*Spain gave u.S. part of Florida due to their paranoia from John Jay Treaty
*Also stopped encouraging Native American raids
Election of 1796
*Adams President, Jefferson Vice
*President faces problems with France
*France threatened by Adams coming to power- don't like federalists
XYZ Affair (Quasi War)
*U.S. had to pay to see foreign powers in France
*Letters were published which started an Undeclared (Quasi) War
*All treaties were repealed from France and a navy department was created
*Lasted for 2 years though never declared a war
Alien Act
*New imigrants tended to be democratic-republicans so federalists in power increase the years to become a citizen to 14 years.
*Deported anyone who was not a citizen
Sedition Act
*Goal was to stop people from criticising political party in power
Virginia & Kentucky Resolution
*Response to Alien and Sedition Acts
*Claimed states had a right to nullify unconstitutional federal actions
Election ("Revolution") of 1800
*First democratic-republican in Power
*Jefferson President, Burr Vice
Slave Trade Compromise
*after 20 years no more importing of slaves from other countries
*Legally stopped in 1808
*Important because slaves born in u.S. would grow up with the same culture which was less hard to ignore
"Mad" Anthony Wayne
*Punished Indian tribes- crushed and demoralized them
*Indians were using British guns
French Revolution
*French at war with Britain
*Genet-French Representative
American Alliance with France
*U.S. would help French out and French would help U.S. out
Neutrality Proclamation
*President could suggest course of action when it came to neutrality, but Congress had the power to declare war
Minister Genet Precedents
1)U.S. would recognize appointed representatve of any foreign government
2)Exective branch had the power to establish relationship with foreign government
Hartford Convention
*New England states sent Representatives
*They were all federalists
*Proposed several amendments including a single term limit fot the president
*End to the federalist party
Tariff of 1816
A protective Tariff, which was to protect infant U.S. industries that had sprung up during the War of 1812
Panic of 1819
*caused by the Bank of the United States
*Affected Farmers mostly
*As as some moved west and started farming others followed and there was a surplus of cotton
*As a result proces dropped
Adams-Onis Treaty
*Spain cedes Florida to U.S. and sets a U.S. southern border
Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833
*after Congress passed a high tariff SC came up with the Ordinance of Nullification-said that any use of federal force against SC would cause them to secede
*Jackson responded by sending troops
Clay proposed a compromise tariff
*the Force bill was also passed which enabled the President to use troops to enforce the tariff laws.
Manifest destiny
"God-given" right to take over new territories (1840s)
*Result of the War of 1812
*Sectionalism- loyalty to a region of a country
Wilmot Proviso
*David Wilmot proposed an amendment that said slavery could not be allowed in any territory acquired with the money.(Mexican land)
*Annexed in 1845
*led to War with Mexico,since Mexico saw the land as theirs, but would not sell it
*War lasted two years (1846-1848)
*both signed a peace treaty, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February of 1848.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
*U.S. got posession of Califonia and land stretching westward from Texas to California
*U.S. paid Mexico $15 million and its debts owed to U.S. citizens
*Gadsden Purchase(1853)- U.S. bought land from Mexico that today makes up the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico.
Jacksonian Democracy
*set up the spoils system-elected gov. officials handed out public jobs to members of their political party
*Rotation in office-any intelligent man could work in a post office or collect tariffs, so jobs like that should be passed around.
Era of Good Feelings
*not much political fighting
*Monroe reelected
*Only Republican Party left
Tariff of Abominations
*clled for extremely high tariffs
*passed by President Adams
*south hated it
American System
*Proposed by Henry Clay in 1824
*called for high tariffs to provide money for internal improvements
*high tariffs would also protect industries, thus increasing employment and income
Missouri Compromise
*Missouri would come in as a slave state, while Maine would come in as a free state
*this was to keep balance in the senate
*prohibits slavery in all parts of the Louisiana Purchase that lay north of Missouri's southern border
Monroe Doctrine
*declares most of western hemisphere of limits to foreign intervention
Treaty of 1846
*compromise with Britain
*split the Oregon Country, placing the boundary between British and U.S. lands at the 49th parallel.
Election of 1824
*clay dropped out and gave his support to Adams
*Adams won and made Clay Secretary of State
*Jackson was mad because he had the most popular votes, but not the majority of electoral votes so the decision went to the House of Representatives.
Industrial Revolution
*Cotton Gin invented
*interchangeable parts
*factory system
*labor unions
*growing immigration
a business that can sell stock, or shares of ownership, to raise money
collective bargaining
labor unions would negotiate with employers on behalf of an entire group of workers for a contract that might provide higher wages or better working conditions.
Indian Removal Act
*Congress declared that Native Americans would have to move west of the Mississippi
Independent Treasury
*van Buren got Congress to set it up
*had subtreasuries in major cities
*federal government became its own banker
Anti-Masonic party
*first important third party
*formed in 1828
*toll roads, built usually by private businesspeople but sometimes by a government
*first turnpike was between Philadelphia and Lancaster, PA. (1791)
National Road
*westward from Cumberland, MD, through southern PA.
Erie Canal
*40ft wide, 350 miles long
*cheaper and easier transportation
*businesses boomed along the canal and in NY.
Women's Rights Convention
*Seneca Falls
*called for woman's suffrage
Oneida Community
*called themselves perfectionists
Compromise of 1850
1)Califonia enter as a free sate
2)New Mexico and Utah-popular sovereignty
3)Texas gets $10 million to give up part of NM east of the Rio Grande
4)slave trade illegal in District of Columbia
5)Fugitive Slave Act-make it easier for slave-holders to reclaim escaped slaves
Kansas-Nebraska Act
*Douglas proposed popular sovereignty in the two territories
*called for a repeal of the Missouri Compromise
Bleeding Kansas
*1856- a proslavery mob attacked and burned the town of lawrence, Kansas.
*Anti-slavery settlers led by John Brown murdered 5 proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek.
Dred Scott Decision
*voids Missouri Compromise
*Supreme Court rules Scott was not a citizen and therfore not free
*Congress could not bar slavery from a territory
Freeport Doctrine
*a territory's legislature could eliminate slavery just by failing to pass laws to support it.
*hurt Douglas's chances of becoming the Democratic nominee for president in 1860
Harpers Ferry
*abolitionist John Brown stages a raid on Harpers Ferry, VA in hopes of starting a slave revolt.
*it fails
*Brown hung
Fort Sumter
*Lincoln sends a suply ship into SC waters to bring food to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.
*Caolinians attack
*War started
theaters of war
*East Theater-between Washington and Richmond
*West Theater- between Appalachain Mts. and Mississippi River
northern democrats who wanted Lincoln to let the South secede
First Battle of Bull Run
*people watched the battle while they picniced
*shows the war is very real and blody
*south wins under Jackson
*868 soldiers killed
Battle of Antietam
*Lee's messangers dropped confederate battle plans and it was found by union
*McClellan attacked the divided troops, but the battle ended in a draw
*Leads Lincoln to announce Emancipation Proclamation
Confiscation Act
*allowed the seizure of all "property" used for insurrection purposes, including slaves
Battle of Shiloh
*North won
*bloodiest battle so far- Union lost 13,000 and Confederates lost 11,000
*soon after Union gained control the Mississippi River from the Gulf to Baton Rouge
Emancipation Proclamation
*issued 1862
*if rebellion had not ended by January 1, 1863 it would go into effect
*set free all slaves in the South under confederate control
13th Amendment
*banned slavery everywhere in the U.S.
Battle of Chancellorsville
*Jackson died
Confederacy won over larger Union army
battle of Gettysburg
*turning point in the war
*went on for 3 days- biggest battle
*Lee order Pickett's Charge- frontal assault across 400 yards of open ground-thousands of confederates were killed
*Union won
Gettysburg Address
*1863- 4 months later
*dedicated a national cemetery for those who died there
*spoke for 3 minutes
Battle of Vicksburg
*Union gained complete control of the Mississippi River
Sherman's March to the Sea
*Captured Atlanta Sept.2, 1864
*Sherman led troops from Atlanta southest toward the coast
*followed Scorched Earth Policy- burned crops and property leaving nothing in its wake
*Sherman gave the city of Savannah to Lincoln as a Christmas present
Surrender at Appomattox
*April 9,1865
*Lee surrenders to Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse
War Toll
*more than 1/3 of all who fought in the war were injured or killed
*110,000 Union died
*94,000 Confederate died
"Soft Reconstruction"
*Lincoln wanted north to welcome south with open arms
*pardoned all former rebels and a quick return of south delegates to congress
Radical Republicans
strongly opposed Lincoln's plan
Wade- Davis Bill
*before a seceded state could resume self-government, 50% of its voters would have to sign an oath of loyalty to the Union
Freedmen's Bureau
* provide the former slaves and Southern refugees of any race with food, clothing, and medical care
Civil Rights Act of 1866
*declared that all people born in the U.S. were citizens
Freedmen's Bureau Bill
empowered the Freedmen's Bureau to hold military trials of anyone accused of violating a freed person's rights
Reconstruction Acts
required the Southern states to abandon their existing governments and create new ones
14th Amendment
*all people born in the U.S. are U.S. citizens
15th Amendment
*voting rights for blacks
Populist Party
*opposed high tariffs and favored reform
Homestead Act
*family could stake a claim to 160 acres of federal land
*the family had 5 years to build a home, then the land was theirs
Dawes Act
*encouraged Native Americans to give up their traditions and adopt new ways
Newlands Reclamtion Act
*the government began to build dams to hold water for irrigation
National Grange
*worked together on ways to solve their problems
*set up cooperatives
Granger Laws
regulated the rates charged by railroads and grain companies
buying out competitors and merging them into larger companies
Interstate Commerce Act
*created an Interstate Commerce Commission that could sue railroads that refused to obey its regulations
a single board of directors or trustees run several corporations
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
*to outlaw trusts
*little immediate effect
National Labor Union
*in 1868 it made Congress set an 8 hour work day for federal employees
Upheaval of 1877
railroads laid off many workers due to the depression as a result workers went on strike. In some areas trains no longer ran
Knights of Labor
*goal was to bring skilled and unskilled workers into one big union
a way of organizing society so that the public owns the major industries and makes the key decisions about how wealth is distributed
Haymarket Riots
*Knight of Labor organized a strike in support of the 8 hour workday
*anarchists rallied top protest police action
*bomb was set off by anarchists
American Federation of Labor
*organization for skilled workers only
*wanted higher wages, shorter workdays, and better working conditions
17th Amendment
*direct election of senators
an arrangement in which a weak nation comes under the protection of a more powerful nation or nations

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