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history chapters 19 & 20


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Uncle Tom's Cabin
book by Harriet Beecher Stowe that greatly strengethened northern antislavery feeling
The IMpending Crisis of the South
Hinton R. Helper's book that said slavery did great harm to the poor whites of the South
conflict over slavery in Kansas was...
greatly escalated by abolitionist-funded settlers and proslavery "border ruffians" from Missouri
John Brown
fanatical abolitionist who killed five proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas and was later killed at Harpers Ferry
Lecompton Constitution
would protect owners of slaves already in Kansas even if voted for without slavery
elecction of 1856 signaled
the dramatic rise of the Republican party
Dred Scott decision
declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional and said slaves could be taken anywhere b/c they were property
panic of 1857 made the South believe
its economy was fundamentally stronger than the North's
key issue in the Lincoln-Douglas debates was
whether people of a territory could prohibit slavery in light of the Dred Scott decision
after John Brown affair, Southerners
thought violent abolitionist sentiments were shared by the whole North
in the election of 1860 the Democratic party
split in two:
Northern Democrats-Douglas
Southern Democrats-Breckenridge
Lincoln won the presidency
without majority of the popular vote and with the electoral majority derived only from the North
timing of secession
7 during Buchanan's term; 4 during Lincoln's term
Lincoln rejected the _______ Compromise because
(Crittenden) it permitted the further extension of slavery north of the line of 36.30
a powerful, personal novel that altered the course of Ameican politics
Uncle Tom's Cabin
a book by; a southern witer that argued that slavery especially oppressed poor whites
The Impending Crisis of the South by Hinton R. Helper
riflesa paid for by New England abolitionist and brought to Kansas by antislavery pioneers
Beecher's Bibles
term that described the prairie territory where a small-scale civil war erupted in 1856
Bleeding kansas
tricky s=proslavery document designed to bring Kansas into the Union but blocked by Stephen A. Douglas
Lecompton Constitution
anti-immigrant party headed by former President Fillmore that competed with Republicans and Democrats in the election of 1856
American (Known-Nothing) Party
controversial Supreme Court ruling that blacks had no ciivl or human rights and that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories
Dred Scott v Sanford
sharp economic decline that increased northern demands for a high tariff and convinced southerners that the North was ecnonomically vulnerable
Crisis of 1857
thoughtufl political discussions during an Illinois Senate campaign that sharply defined national issues concerning slavery
Lincoln-Douglas debates
newly formed middle-of-the-road party of elderly politicians that sought ompromise in 1860, but carried only three border states
Constitutional Union Party
first state to secede from the union in December 1860
South Carolina
a new nation that proclaimed its independence in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861
Confederate States of America
a last-ditch plan to save the Union by providing guarantees for slavery in the territories
Crittenden Compromise
four-way race for the presidency that resulted in the election of a sectional minority president
election of 1860 (Lincoln v Douglas v Breckenridge v Bell)
period between Lincoln's election and his inauguration, during which the ineffectual President Buchanan remained in office
lameduck period
abolitionist group that sent settlers and 'beecher's bibles' to oppose slavery in Kansas
New England Emigrant Aid Company
"the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war" (the Civil War)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
southern-born author whose book attacking slavery's effects on whites roused northern opinion
Hinton R. Helper
fanatical and bloody-minded abolitionist martry admired in the North and hated in the South
John Brown
weak Democratic president whose manipulation by proslavery forces divided his own party
James Buchanan
abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severly injured him
Charles Sumner
Southern congressman whose bloody attack on a northern senator fueled sectional hatred
Preston Brooks
romantic western hero and the firs Republican candidate for president
John C. Fremont
black slave whose unsuccessful attempt to win his freedom deepened the sectional controversy
Dred Scott
site of a federal arsenal where a militant abolitionist attempted to start a slave rebellion
Harpers Ferry, Virginia
leading northern Democrat whose presidential hopes fell victim to the conflict over slavery
Stephen A. Douglas
scene of militant abolitionist John Brown's massacre of proslavery men in 1856
Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas
Buchanan's vice president, nominated for president by breakaway southern Democrats in 1860
John C. Breckenridge
site where seven seceding states united to declare their independence from the United States
Montgomery, AL
former Uniteed States senator who in 1861 became the president of what called itself a new nation
Jefferson Davis
Lincoln's plan for Fort Sumter and its location
(Charleston) to provision but not reinforce
firing on Fort Sumter
aroused Northern support for a war to put down the South's "rebellion"
3 states that joined the COnfederacy only after Lincoln called for troops
Virginia, Arkansas, and Tennessee
Lincoln at first declared the war was being fought
tos ave the Union and not to free the slaves
border states (4)
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware
Butternut Region
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois-opposed an antislavery war
Five Civilized Tribes fought for
the Confederacy
Confederacy had
better trained officers and soldiers
Union had
immigrant manpower
response to the Civil War in Europe
aristocracy supported South; working classes supported North
King Cotton failed b/c
British found sufficient cotton from previous stockpiles and from Egypt and India
Confederate raider Alabama
showed Britain's un-neutral policy of allowing Confederate ships to be built in its naval yards
Lincoln suspended certain civil liberties in order to
save the Union
ship from which two Confederate diplomats (Mason and Slidell) were removed, creatin g amajor crisis between London and Washington
vessel built in Britain that wrecked havoc on Northern shipping until it was finally suink in 1864
ironclad warships that were kept out of Confederate hands by Minister Adam's stern protest to the British government
Laird rams
provision established by Congress in 1863, after volunteers ran out, that provoked violent protest in Northern cities
draft/conscription law
slipery Northern men who collected fees for enlisting in the Union army and then deserted
bounty boys
medical occupation that gained new status and employment opportunities because of women's Civil War service
financial arrangement set up by the federal government to sell government bonds and stabliize the currency
National Banking System
scornful term for Northern manufaturers who made quick fotunes out of selling cheaply made shoes and other inadequate goods to the U.S. Army
Shoddy Millionaires
Civil liberty that was suspended by Lincoln in defiance of the Constitution and the upereme Court's chief justice
habeas corpus
organization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union armied in the field
(Blackwell's) U.S. Sanitary Commision
slippery French dictator who ignored the Mnoroe Doctrine by intervening in Mexican politics
Napoleon III
American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil war
Charles Francis Adams
site of cross-border raids and plots by Southern agents and anti-British Americans during the Civil War
an Old World aristocrat, maniuplated as a puppet in mexico, who was shot when his puppet-master deserted him
scene of the largest Northern antidraft riot in 1863
New York City
Nation whose upper classes hoped for a Confederate victory, while its working classes sympathized with the antislavery north
an inexperienced lead in war but a genius at inspring and directin his nation's cause
Abraham Lincoln
leader whose conflict with states' rights advocates and ridig personality harmed his ability to moblize and direct his nation's war effort
Jefferson Davis
first woman physician and organizer of the United States Sanitary Commision
Elizabeth Blackwell
helped transofrm nursing into a respected profession during the Civil War
Clara Barton

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