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Terms

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abbe sieyes
wrote what is the third estate, supported the revolution, instigated coup allowing napolean to take power
cult of the supreme being
religion based off of deism devised by robespierre
Catherine the Great
female czar of russia 1762 1796
defoe
novelist wrote robinson crusoe, economic journalism
wealth of nations
book on economics written by adam smith
war of the austrian succession
war started by maria theresa's thrown of austria
jansenism
branch of catholic church, predestination
tabula rasa
blank slate, john locke
john wesley
founded methodism
corn laws
laws made it illegal to import grain to england
cornelius vermuyden
dutch engineer in great britain famous for drainage ditches
social contract
supported by john locke and montesquie, says people give up rights and authority to the government to preserve just social order
nelson
general during battle of trafalgar, batttle of the nile
immanuel kant
person who created the categorial imperitive
second estate
french nobility including the monarch
boyars
high ranking russian nobility
treaty of paris
agreemnet ending 7 years war, france ceded louisiana to britain, other colonial possesions
mercantilism
economic theory favoring influx of gold into mother country
methodism
founded by john wesley in great britain religion
cesare beccaria
wrote on crimes and punishments, objected against dealth penalty
levee en masse
declaration that the entire french population is drafted during the FR
war of the first coalition
coalition of prussia austria and great britain over guilloteing of louis 16 against france
olympe de gouges
female playright and feminist demanding equal rights for woman, executed
marie antoinette
wife of louis 16, unpopular and austrian
seven years war
war over frances colonial possesions in america and leading power of europe, france lost most everything
consulate era
era after the directory with napolean acting as head, took public vote of support that reaffirmed napoleans right to lead
declaration of pillnitz
bluff by austria stating condemnation of the french revolution, caused louis 16 to be executed
waterloo
final battle of napolean in 1815 defeated by duke of wellington
van leeuwenhoek
first microscope, first to describe cells
wellington
general defeated napolean at waterloo
Concert of Europe
balance of power after napolean until ww1
danton
president of committee of public safety, guilloteened, sparked overthrow of robespierre
concordat of 1801
agreement of napolean and pope prius restoring some relations with the catholic church
parlement
french judicial system
great fear
start of unrest in france by the peasants over grain supplies, attacked manor houses
berlin decree
issued by napolean, forbid imporatation of british goods into Portugal and other European countries
metternich
politician advocated balance of power
rights of man
pahmplet written by thomas paine defending the french revolution
Napoleonic code
universal equal code established by napolean
robot
labor requirement in germany
Holy Alliance
coalition of russia, austria, prussia, aimed to instil christian values in political life
refractory clergy
clergy who refused to swear an oath of loyalty
gallican church
roman cahtolic church in france, headed by the monarch, not by the pope
general will
idea promoted by rosseau, referring to the interest of the people as a whole
girondins
moderate part of the national convention
st helana
second island napolean was exiled to
treaty of luneville
marked the end of the war with austria in 1801
frederick the great
frederick II, claimed silesia for austria, paritioned poland
conspiracy of equals
lead by babeuf, sought to establish socialist and communist france
william harvey
famous for accurate anatomy and heart
estates general
french legislative assembly caused french revolution
arc de triomphe
monoument built to celebrate battle of austerlitz
prussia (nickname)
sparta of the north
table of ranks
formal list of positions in imperial russian by peter the great based on service
assignats
french paper currency backed by sale of church lands
townshend
chancellor of colonies, advocated enclosure, use of turnips acts for raising reveue and regulation of trade
john locke
famous for empiricism and social contract theory blank slate tabula rosa
Cogito ergo sum
i think therefor i am by descarts
jethro tull
invented the see drill, harness for horses, agriculture reforms
act of union 1707
laws that unified england and scotland to benefit from englands trade
The Spirit of the Laws
written by montesquie, defines three political system
st petersburg
window on the west
empiricism
knowledge arises from experience, founded by john locke
peninsular war
Napoleonic war over the control of portugal
bank of england
institution founded by paterson
diderot
wrote the encyclopedia
holy synod
group of bishops that lead eastern orthodox churches
empire period
age of voltaire 1804-1814 napolean as emperor
romanov
second and last dynasty of russia
liberum veto
need for polish legislature to have unaminous votes to pass new legislation
treaty of tilsit
ended war between russia and france, allied france and russia
treaty of utrecht
treaty ending the war of spanish succession, ceded spains slave trade, prohibited union of france and spain
d'holbach
european athiest, undermined enlightenment
asiento
spanish slave trade
german confederation
association of german states created by conference of vienna
frankfort proposal
decree that offered napolean the chance to remain in power
louis xiv
sun king, long ruling absolute monarch of france
montesquieu
famous for seperation of powers, balance of powers
war of the fourth coalition
fourth attempt to oust napolean, prussia, russia, UK, swedan
first consul
title used by napolean after dissolved of directory
tycho brahe
famous for accurate celestial observations
temple of reason
notre dame cathedral head of the cult of the supreme being
enclosure movement
advocated by charles townshend to fence off lands and get rid of public lands
vindication of the rights of woman
novel written by wollstonecraft urging equality of woman
suleiman
sultan of ottoman empire
Orders in Council
forbid french trade with UK, issued UK blocade of french ports
inductive method
use of many observations to build facts, empricism, used by gallileo and bacon and brahe against aristotles deductive method
bourgeoisie
upper merchant class
peter i
peter the great, westernized russia
rene descartes
founder of modern philosophy, i think therefor i am, cartesian coordinate system, analytic geometry
diplomatic revolution 1756
reversal of traditional alliances over war of austrian succession, france and austria against great britain and prussia
third estate
all those who are not the aristocracy nor clergy, paid taxes
hohenzollern
prussian dynasty
elba
island napolean was first exiled to
wollenstonecraft
wrote rights of woman
girondins
political faction of france
physiocrats
economists who beleived in wealth of nations, dominated by turgot and quesnay
alexander i
emperor of russia, opposed napolean
cartesian dualism
proposed by rene descarts, stated that the mind is seperate from the body
trafalgar
sea battle where nelson defeated napolean then died
robert bakewell
an advocate of selective breeding
tennis court oath
pledge by the third estate to create a new constitution for france
continental system
embargo by napolean forbidding trade with britain
national assembly
first legislature of france after deposing the king
sandbox of europe
brandenburg prussia
committee of public safety
part of the french government heeded by Robespierre that executed thousands
flight to varennes
failed escape attempt of louis 16
adam smith
wrote wealth of nations, modern economics, invisble hand
kepler
laws of planetary motion, foundations for isaac newtons theory of universal gravitation
geocentric
aristotle
silesia
frederick the great captured this land of austrian succession
window on the west
st petersburg
Louis XVIII
brother of louis 15, king of france from 1814-1824
middle passage
part of the slave trade transporting slaves from africa to the americas
pugachev rebellion
rebellion during cahterine the great rein in russia
corvee
payment of labor in france
cossacks
rebellious militaristic communities during catherine the greats reign
reign of terror
period of violence during the french revolution
emigres
aristocratics who fled the fled revolution
battle of leipzig
battle of nations, massive defeat of napolean after invasion of germany
cahiers de deleances
list of greviances against louis 16
janissary corps
christian boys who served in ottoman army
thermidorian reaction
revolt of the french people against the reign of terror
vesalius
replaced gaylord as the the authority of human anatomy
rousseau
father of romanticism
joseph ii
eldest son of maria theresa, englithend monarch, ruler of austria
strelski
moscow guard
David Hume
an empiricist, athiest
columbian exchange
trade of agriculture, culture, food, populations between east and west after 1492
junkers
nobility of prussia and germany
south sea bubble
granted monopoly to trade in spains south american colonies, speculation lead to great bubble andcollapse of the company
pragmatic sanction 1713
legal mechanism to ensure charle's vi daughter maria theresa would inherit austrian thrown
war of the second coalition
second failed attempt to best napolean of austria great britain russia portugal ottoman empire
austerlitz
great battle victory of napolean destroying the third colalition
enlightened despotism
absolute monarchs influenced by englightenment catherine the great frederick teh great joseph ii maria theresa napolean peter the great
congress of vienna
chaired by metternich, object was to prevent france from future wars, dissolved HRE
plebiscite
napoleans popular election to secure his legitimacy as emperor
quadruple alliance
final alliance that ended napoleans reign
jean-paul marat
french revolutionary newspaperist stabbed to death in his bath tub
creoles
french and Spanish descendants in Louisiana
leopold i
holy roman emporer married maria theresa
principia
isaac newtons book explaining laws of motion, universal gravitation, classical mechanics
diderot
worked on the encyclopedia
german pietism
went against enlightenment, emphasis on christian life
czar
emporer of russia
copernicus
heliocentric theory
reflections on the revolution in france
well known attack by edmnund burke on the french revolution
the rights of woman
written by wallstonecraft
declaration of the rights of man
document of the french revolution guaranteeing certain human rights
mestizos
mixed european and indian descent
edward jenner
credited with developing smallpox vaccine
madame de pomadour
famous mistriss of louis 14
deductive reasoning
uses given statemetns to draw conclusions developed by aristotle
milan decree
stated no european country could trade with the UK
september massacres
mob violence in paris that executed prison population, mainly against the catholic church
old believers
believed in traditional russian orthodox church before reforms
louis xv
weak leader of rance
enrages
radical gropu that opposed the jacobins, fought against by robespierre
francis bacon
founder of scientific method, utopia
first estate
clergy of france
edmund burke
strong opposition to the french revolution, englishman, wrote reflections on the revolution in france
baroque
dramatic form of artwork
age of montesquier
first stage sepearation of powers
siege of vienna
attempt by suleiman to capture part of austria marked the end of ottoman expansion on central europe
maria theresa
ruler of austria, seven years war, austrian succeccion
time of troubles
between the last czar and establishment of the new romanov dynasty
deism
secular beleif in existance of god
sans-coulettes
poorer members of the third estate, full lenght trousers, masses
galileo
famous for modern astronomy, support of copernicus, telescope

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