# Physics Chapter 1

## Terms

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- predict
- to tell or describe beforehand
- laws of motion
- Issac Newton (famous 1)
- parallax
- when something appears to move based on the angle it's viewed at.
- Aristotle
- "heavier objects fall faster" (person)
- quadratic relationship
- exists when one variable depends on the square of another
- Michael Ferraday
- created moving electromagnetic field to generate electricity (person)
- dependent variable
- variable measured in an experiment
- scientific law
- describes a rule of nature and is usually a expressed as mathematical formula.
- thermodynamics
- study of energy transformations of a system
- y=a/x
- the equation used to describe an inverse relationship
- light behaves as particles
- Issac Newton (said what about light?)
- 2nd law of motion
- mass x acceleration=force (f=ma)
- Rudolf Claussius
- formulated the 2nd law of thermodynamics (also introduced entropy) (person)
- latitude
- angular distance north or south from the earth's equator measured through 90°
- Special Theory of Relativity
- when you approach light speed, both time and space are distorted
- entropy
- randomness or disorder of a system
- linear relationship
- when the line of best fit graph is a straight line for describing a relationship
- graph
- a diagram the represents the variation of a variable in comparison w/ that of 1 or more other variables
- 1st law of motion
- object in motion, stays in motion
- variable
- any factor that might affect the behavior of an experimental set up
- ROYGBIV
- colors (in order, 1st letter only, no spaces) that make up white light
- equation
- formal statement of equivalence of mathematical expressions
- second
- SI unit for time
- mole
- SI unit for amount of a substance
- Ernest Rutherford
- found nucleus (person)
- slope
- tangent of the angle made by a straight line w/ the x-axis (rise/run)
- weak forces
- holds atoms together (type of force)
- nonlinear relationship
- relationship when the line of best fit is not a straight line
- quantum mechanics
- describes that matter has wave-like properties
- Max Plank
- described the rules for the quantum theory (person)
- James Clark Maxwell
- continued Ferraday's experiments (person)
- Henrico Fermi
- used a neutron like a bullet to split an atom (person)
- Murray Gell-Mann
- discovered the 3 quarks
- dimensional analysis
- a calculation method where you treat the units in a problem as algebraic properties
- superconductors
- cool a substance so that resistance is zero and a current can flow through it without loosing energy
- physics
- the study of the physical world; energy, matter, and how they are related
- line of best fit
- mark on a graph as close to all the data pts. as possible
- gram
- SI unit for mass
- Max Bourn
- if matter is a wave, what is waving? (probability of locating an atom at any given pt.)
- measurement
- a comparison between an unknown quantity and a standard
- 3rd law of motion
- for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
- scientific method
- process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful & systematic collection, organization, & analysis of data
- Madame Curie
- 1st to experiment w/ radium (person)
- Chadwick
- student of Rutherford, found neutron & proton in nucleus (person)
- Erwin Shrodenger
- because light behaves like a wave, created an equation (person)
- parabola
- plane curve created by moving so that its distance from a fixed pt. is equal to its distance from a fixed line
- 4 fundamental forces
- strong force, weak force, gravitation, electromagnetic (types of....)
- Albert Einstein
- created the theory of special relativity
- 1/2 of smallest division
- describes how precise an instrument is
- longitude
- angular distance or portion of the earth's equator intersected between the median of a given location & the prime meridian
- electromagnetism
- an unequal distribution of charge is produced by electrons in motion (1 of 4 forces)
- precision
- degree of exactness, affected by equipment, and technique (sig. figs.)
- candela
- SI unit for luminous intensity
- quantum theory
- energy occurs in packets
- direct relationship
- a change in 1 variable causes the same change in the other variable
- electromagnetism
- Michael Ferraday (worked w/ what subject?)
- accuracy
- accepted value vs. what you got
- hypothesis
- a statement that deals w/ very specific worldly phenomenon
- Albert Einstein
- light behaves like both waves and particles(person)
- universal gravitation
- Issac Newton (deals w/ earth)
- Galileo
- tested Aristotle's "heavier objects fall faster" (also developed a telescope and said planets revolves around the sun) (person)
- scientific notation
- uses #'s 1-10 and multiplies by an appropriate power of 10
- hyperbola
- plane curve created by a point moving so that the distance from two fixed pts. is constant
- ampere
- SI unit for electric current
- scientific theory
- Has lots of experiments completed to support your data, wider scope/broader topic
- Young
- said light behaves like a wave (person)
- 1st law of thermodynamics
- energy can't be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
- y=ax²+bx+c
- the equation used to describe a quadratic relationship
- quarks
- fundamental constituents of subatomic particles
- 2nd law of thermodynamics
- entropy of the universe is always increasing
- kelvin
- SI unit for temperature
- independent variable
- variable in an experiment that is manipulated
- meter
- SI unit for length
- model
- system of postulates, data, and inferences presented as a mathematical description of an entity
- y=mx+b
- the equation used to describe a linear relationship