# Physics Chapter 1

## Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
predict
to tell or describe beforehand
laws of motion
Issac Newton (famous 1)
parallax
when something appears to move based on the angle it's viewed at.
Aristotle
"heavier objects fall faster" (person)
exists when one variable depends on the square of another
created moving electromagnetic field to generate electricity (person)
dependent variable
variable measured in an experiment
scientific law
describes a rule of nature and is usually a expressed as mathematical formula.
thermodynamics
study of energy transformations of a system
y=a/x
the equation used to describe an inverse relationship
light behaves as particles
Issac Newton (said what about light?)
2nd law of motion
mass x acceleration=force (f=ma)
Rudolf Claussius
formulated the 2nd law of thermodynamics (also introduced entropy) (person)
latitude
angular distance north or south from the earth's equator measured through 90°
Special Theory of Relativity
when you approach light speed, both time and space are distorted
entropy
randomness or disorder of a system
linear relationship
when the line of best fit graph is a straight line for describing a relationship
graph
a diagram the represents the variation of a variable in comparison w/ that of 1 or more other variables
1st law of motion
object in motion, stays in motion
variable
any factor that might affect the behavior of an experimental set up
ROYGBIV
colors (in order, 1st letter only, no spaces) that make up white light
equation
formal statement of equivalence of mathematical expressions
second
SI unit for time
mole
SI unit for amount of a substance
Ernest Rutherford
found nucleus (person)
slope
tangent of the angle made by a straight line w/ the x-axis (rise/run)
weak forces
holds atoms together (type of force)
nonlinear relationship
relationship when the line of best fit is not a straight line
quantum mechanics
describes that matter has wave-like properties
Max Plank
described the rules for the quantum theory (person)
James Clark Maxwell
Henrico Fermi
used a neutron like a bullet to split an atom (person)
Murray Gell-Mann
discovered the 3 quarks
dimensional analysis
a calculation method where you treat the units in a problem as algebraic properties
superconductors
cool a substance so that resistance is zero and a current can flow through it without loosing energy
physics
the study of the physical world; energy, matter, and how they are related
line of best fit
mark on a graph as close to all the data pts. as possible
gram
SI unit for mass
Max Bourn
if matter is a wave, what is waving? (probability of locating an atom at any given pt.)
measurement
a comparison between an unknown quantity and a standard
3rd law of motion
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
scientific method
process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful & systematic collection, organization, & analysis of data
1st to experiment w/ radium (person)
student of Rutherford, found neutron & proton in nucleus (person)
Erwin Shrodenger
because light behaves like a wave, created an equation (person)
parabola
plane curve created by moving so that its distance from a fixed pt. is equal to its distance from a fixed line
4 fundamental forces
strong force, weak force, gravitation, electromagnetic (types of....)
Albert Einstein
created the theory of special relativity
1/2 of smallest division
describes how precise an instrument is
longitude
angular distance or portion of the earth's equator intersected between the median of a given location & the prime meridian
electromagnetism
an unequal distribution of charge is produced by electrons in motion (1 of 4 forces)
precision
degree of exactness, affected by equipment, and technique (sig. figs.)
candela
SI unit for luminous intensity
quantum theory
energy occurs in packets
direct relationship
a change in 1 variable causes the same change in the other variable
electromagnetism
Michael Ferraday (worked w/ what subject?)
accuracy
accepted value vs. what you got
hypothesis
a statement that deals w/ very specific worldly phenomenon
Albert Einstein
light behaves like both waves and particles(person)
universal gravitation
Issac Newton (deals w/ earth)
Galileo
tested Aristotle's "heavier objects fall faster" (also developed a telescope and said planets revolves around the sun) (person)
scientific notation
uses #'s 1-10 and multiplies by an appropriate power of 10
hyperbola
plane curve created by a point moving so that the distance from two fixed pts. is constant
ampere
SI unit for electric current
scientific theory
Has lots of experiments completed to support your data, wider scope/broader topic
Young
said light behaves like a wave (person)
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can't be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
y=ax²+bx+c
the equation used to describe a quadratic relationship
quarks
fundamental constituents of subatomic particles
2nd law of thermodynamics
entropy of the universe is always increasing
kelvin
SI unit for temperature
independent variable
variable in an experiment that is manipulated
meter
SI unit for length
model
system of postulates, data, and inferences presented as a mathematical description of an entity
y=mx+b
the equation used to describe a linear relationship

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