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Scientific Revolution

People, Books, and Theories of the Scientific Rervolution.


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Maria Winkelmann
found undiscovered comet; denied pace in the Berlin Academy b/c she was a woman
(Francis Bacon's) inductive method
reasoning by experiments, mathematics, and observation
(Blaise Pascal's) "Pensees"
his Christian apologetics (deductive); placed in the Index of Forbidden Books (ironic b/c Pascal was Catholic)
Heliocentric Universe
sun center of universe; developed by copernicus
(Isaac Newton's) "Principia"
Newton created calculus and his book explained it.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish monk; developed heliocentric theory but never proved it b/c his equations were wrong
alchemy and hermetic magic
desire to control/dominate the natural world was a motivating force for the Scientific Revolution
Empyrean Heaven
beyond the 10th sphere in the geocentric theory was the place were God and the other saved souls lived
William Harvey and "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood"
heart center of circulatory system
"On the Fabric of the Human Body"
written by Vesalius; explained anatomy of a human
(Descartes') deductive method
reasoning that is assumed based on a series of occurances and/or patterns
"querelles des femmes"
arguments about women dating back to the medieval era
French Royal Academy of Sciences
controlled by government; forced (by King Louis XIV) to focus on military sciences
Natural Philosophers
term developed for medieval philosophers such as Aristotle, Galen, and Ptolemy
used animals, not human bodies, to study anatomy; said liver and lungs were center or circ. system and there were two seperate blood systems
(Galileo's) "The Starry Messenger"
Italian mathematcian and astronomer; used his telescope to view the 4 moons around Jupiter, which disproved the geocentric theory
Andreas Vesalius
disproved Galen (liver center of circ. system); dissected human bodies of his lectures on anatomy; creates foundation of circ. system.
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
1543, Copernicus
Maria Sibylla Merian
entomologist; wrote "Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam", which showed drawings of the life cycles of insects on Surinam
concentric pheres within spheres; "theory" developed to explain why the observations wouldnt match with the mathematical equations for the geocentric theory
The inquisition
Galileo publicly recanted his proof on the heliocentric theory so he wouldnt die a painful death, but stated afterwards "Yet it still moves". He spent the rest of his life, under house arrest, studying mechanics
rejected work of Aristotle and Galen; said disease was caused by an imbalance of the four bodily humors located in specific organs and that they could be treated by chemical remedies
English Royal Society
independent from government
Ptolemaic Universe/Geocentric theory
still earth center of universe with 9 revolving spheres around it
"God's handiwork"
stated that the world and the universe were made by God, and therefore, appropriate to study
medieval scientists; laid foundation for geocentric universe theory
Universal law of Gravitation
explained why planets continued in elliptical orbits around the sun
4 Bodily Humors
Paracelsus; blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile
"Journal des Savants"
Journal posted by the French Royal Academy; written in vernacular, aimed at general public
Tycho Brahe
Danish astronomer; developed geoncentric theory; spent 20 years researching and observing trying to prove copernicus wrong
Johannes Kepler
developed 3 laws of planetary motion with Brahe's work; used jargon
(Spinoza's) Pantheism
Religion that "God" is everywhere and inhabits everything
Margaret Cavendish
educated scientist and astronomer; excluded from English Royal Society, regardless of her many accomplishments; wrote several books contrasting her knowledge with the knowledge of other scientists
"Philosophical Transactions"
Journal posted by English Royal Society; aimed at scientists, used jargon
3 laws of Planetary Motion
created by Kepler; mathematically proved heliocentric theory

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