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[unofficial] McKay, Chapter 18 Toward a New World-view [Texts]

the book part

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Encyclopedia
[Denis Diderot] He wanted to present all valid knowledge. Knowledge based on reason not on tradition or authority. This cause some trouble with the pope. :D
Two Treatises on Government
[John Locke] Stated that human nature lived free and was entitled to natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so. It was the duty of the people to rebel.
The Social Contract
[Jean Jaques Rosseau] He suggests that assemblies be held in which every citizen assist in determining the "general will" (Perfect societies perform according to the "general will")
Two New Sciences
[Galileo Galilei] described his experiment in his famous acceleration experiment, he showed that a uniform force, in this case, gravity, produced a uniform acceleration. In his Two Sciences Galileo described his painstaking method and conclusion. (p.598)
Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds
[French: Bernard Fontelle] explained the heliocentric model of the universe., [French: Bernard Fontelle] explained the heliocentric model of the universe.
On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
[William Harvey] Established the circulation of blood; landmark in physiology. Harvey employed careful empirical methods when writing this book.
The Starry Messenger
[Galileo Galilei] it was the first scientific treatise based on observations made through a telescope. It contains the results of Galileo's early observations of the moon, the stars, and the moons of Jupiter.
Principia
[Newton] published his third book, Principia (also known as Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) in Latin in 1687. In this book, Newton wanted to demonstrate the frame of the system of the world. Newton explored a set of mathematical laws that explained motion and mechanics. (p.599)
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
[John Locke] (Tabula Rasa) Insisted that all ideas are derived from experience. The initial mind at birth is just a blank slate. Theory of personal identity.
Êmile
[Jean Jaques Rosseau] Êmile aka Education; a largely philosophical treatise on the nature of man; it addresses political and philosophical questions regarding the individual's relationship to society, in particular how the individual can retain what Rosseau as his natural goodness while participating in an inevitable corrupt society.
On Crime and Punishment
[Cesare Beccaria] The essays proposed many reforms for the criminal justice system, including prompt administration of clearly prescribed laws made by the legislature rather than individual courts or judges, the abolition of torture in prisons and the use of the penal system to deter offenders. Rather than simply punishing those convicted.
On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
[Nicolaus Copernicus] This book offers an alternative model of the universe to the ptolemaic system; which before had been universally accepted. Introduced the heliocentric theory.
The Spirit of the Laws
[Montesquieu] was inspired by the example of the physical sciences; he set out to apply the critical method to the problem of government in The Spirit of Laws. (p.607-608)
Discourse on Method
Written by Descartes in 1637. "I think therefore I am." Separation of mind and matter (Cartesian Dualism).
Candide
[Volitaire] satirizing society and organized religion in Europe. hint* we read it duh.

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