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Astro Ch 4 & 7

Terms

undefined, object
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molecule
a bound combination of two or more atoms
radial velocity
the portion of an object's velocity parallel to the line of sight
spectral analysis
the identification of chemicals by the appearance of their spectra
hot-spot volcanism
the creation of volcanoes on a planet's surface caused by a reservoir of hot magma in the planet's mantle under a thin part of the crust
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
ionization
the process by which an atom loses or gains electrons
3-to-2 spin-orbit coupling
the rotation of Mercury, which makes three complete rorations on its axis for every two complete orbits around the Sun
quantum mechanics
the branch of physics dealing with the structure and behavior of atoms and their interactions with each other and with light
Wein's law
the relationship that the dominant wavelength of radiation emitted by a blackbody varies inversely with its temperature
continuous spectrum
a spectrum of light over a range of wavelengths without any spectral lines
radioactive
the property whereby certain atomic nuclei naturally decompose by spontaneously emitting particles
southern highlands
older, cratered terrain in the Martian southern hemisphere
proper motion
the change in the location of a star on the celestial sphere
periodic table
a listing of the chemical elements according to their properties; created by Mendeleev
absorption line
a dark line in a continuous spectrum created when photons are removed from the continuum
northern vastness
relatively young, crater-free terrain in the northen hemisphere of Mars
emission line spectrum
a spectrum that contains only bright emission lines
spectrogaph
a device for photographing a spectra
isotope
any of several forms of the same chemical element whose nucleu all have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Their nuclear properties often differ greatly
diffraction grating
an optcal device consisting of closely spaced lines ruled on a piece of glass that is used like a prism to disperse light into a spectrum
dust devil
whirlwind found in dry or desert areas on both Earth and Mars
nucleus
the massive part of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons, about which electrons revolve
energy flux
the amount of energy emitted from each square meter of an object's surface per second
caldera
the crater at the summit of a volcano
excited state
orbit of an electron with energy greater than the lowest energy orbit (or state) available to that election
luminosity
the rate at which electromanetic radiation is emitted from a star or other object
blackbody curve
the curve obtaind when the intensity of radiation from a blackbody at a particular temperature is plotted against wavelength
Kirchhoff's laws
three statements describing what physical conditions produce each type of spectra
Stefan-Boltzmann law
the releationship sating that an object emits energy at a rate proportional to the fourth power of its temperature, in Kelvins
spectroscope
a device for directly viewing a spectrum
strong nuclear force
the force that binds protons and neutrons together in nuclei
transition (of an electron)
the change in energy and orbit of an electron around an atom or molecule
absorption line spectrum
dark lines superimposed on a continuous spectrum
scarp
a cliff on Mercury believed to have formed when the planet cooled and shrank
ion
an atom that has become electrically charged due to the loss or addition of one or more electrons
virtual particles
a particle and its antiparticle, created simultaneaously in pairs and which quickly disappear without a trace
greenhouse effect
the trapping of infrared radiation near a planet's surface by the planet's atmosphere
blackbody
a hypothetical perfect radiator that absorbs and reemits all radiation falling upon it
Planck's law
a relationship between the energy carried by a photon and its wavelength
ground state
the lowest energy level of an atom
retrograde rotation
the occasional backward (westward) apparent motion of a planet against the background stars as seen from the Earth. it is an optical illusion
element
a substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical mean into simpler substances. every atom of the same element contains the same number of protons

Deck Info

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