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AP Euro 1st Semester Final

Mrs. Alessandria's 1st semester final review.

Terms

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James II
closet Catholic, fled to France during Glorious Revolution
Charles VI of Austria
Instituted the Pragmatic Sanction, forbidding the Hapsburg lands from ever dividing
Northern Renaissance
the movement in Art in Germany and Flanders that reflected greater religious tones; , Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Frederick William I
The Soldier's King; built up an army but never used it
Enlightened Monarch
political change could best come from the rulers and not the people
Secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Italian City-states
Venice, Milan, Florence, Papal States, Naples
Henry IV
Henry of Navarre; was protestant but did not wish to anger catholics. Said "Paris is well worth a mass"
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
Signori
despots who controlled much of Italy by 1300.
Counter Reformation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Anglicanism
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
100 Year's War fwafewf
(1337-1453) Large war between France and England that was fueled by territorial disagreements and started when Edward III declared himself king of France. In the end, it weakened both countries for some time
John Knox
Scottish theologian and Calvinist who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789
High Renaissance Artists
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian
Absolutism
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
Communes
They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor; King of Spain; Summoned Diet of Worms
Medici Family
Dominating family of Florence,acquired wealth through banking. Spent lots of money on art.
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
Boccaccio
He wrote "The Decameron" and was an italian writer who lived during the black death.
Titian
old master of the Venetian school (1490-1576)
Calvinism
the theological system emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
Heliocentric
Theory that sun is center of the universe
Philip II
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary Tudor
Pico della Mirandola
philosopher who wrote On the Dignity of Man
Simony
The selling of church offices.
Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Quinto
The Spanish monarchy acted on the mercantilism principle that the colonies existed for financial benefit. The crown claimed the quinto, gold and silver, as being the most important industry in the Spanish colonies. (p.512)
Lorenzo Valla
On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
War of Three Henrys
war for secular power, between Henry of Navarre, Henry VIII and Henry of guise
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Frederick William the Great Elector
laid the foundation for the Prussian state; built an army of 40,000 men to protect Prussia
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588 that failed miserably
Newton
wrote Principia in 1687. Made the 3 laws of mechanics and law of gravity. He also invented calculus.
Deductive reasoning
Descartes; reached from previously known facts
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Michelangelo
carved David (1501-04) which served as the symbol for the new Republic of Florence.
Salons
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and other exchanged enlightenment ideas
Causes of the Reformation
spread of new ideas, corruption of the Catholic Church, invention of the Printing Press
Catholic Reformation
Attempt to reform abuses in the Catholic Church in the 1500's
Glorious Revolution
in Britain, nonviolent overthrow of the government of James II that resulted in the reign of William and Mary
Individualism
Concern for the capability and uniqueness of the individual personality
95 Theses
statements attacking the Catholic Church's practices.
The Fronde
a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
Early Renaissance Artists
Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Boccaccio, and Petrarch
Brunelleschi
Florence Cathedral Dome
Anabaptist
rejected infant baptism and believed that a person should choose their own faith.
Geocentric
models of the universe based on the assumption that the sun, moon, and planets all orbit Earth
Putting out system
The Cottage Industry; was eliminated with all the development of new machines and inventions in Britain
Michel de Montaigne
Developed the essay form. Skepticism, doubt that rue knowledge could be obtained.
Brahe
Compiled the first detailed observational data on planetary motion (mars), without a telescope.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
Cossacks
free groups and outlaw armies of peasants who fled the tzar and service nobility
Union of Utrecht
The union created for the Netherlands that granted their independence against Spain
Simony, Nepotism, Indulgences
Abuses of Church Power
Women in the Renaissance
were often well read and educated, though this was discouraged by most men
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)
Boyle
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Edward Jenner
introduced a vaccine to prevent small pox
Edward IV
Returned to Protestant rule after the death of his father
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, engineer, scientist and architect
Italian Renaissance
time of transition from medieval to modern times characterized by intellectual and political expansion as well as the rebirth of culture
Predestination
idea that God determines man's salvation before birth
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658); Lord Protector of England
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who reached India (1497-1499)
Tennis Court Oath
the national assembly swore to never separate and to constantly meet until they wrote a fair constitution. it came about because the third estate claimed they were the National Assembly, so they invited people from the other estates to help them write their constitution
Inductive reasoning
Bacon; conjecture based on a pattern of examples or past events
Nepotism
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions.
Transubstantiation
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
lunatic
insane and believed to be affected by the phases of the moon
English Reformation
Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church.
Witch hunts
spread by religious reformers' preachings about the Devil and severe economic hardships (1560-1660)
Avignon Papacy
the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome
Niccolo Machiavelli
Statesmen and historian; wrote The Prince
Ivan the Terrible
first czar of Russia, known for cruelty and being constantly at war
Golden Century of Spain
The influence of Spanish armies, Catholicism, and wealth felt all over Europe in the 16th Century
Popolo
italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government. (p.416-417)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution
Napoleon's Continental System
attempt to stop British goods form reaching Europe, but failed
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Campaign against Huguenots in order to unify France.
Phases of the Thirty Years War
Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, French
Maria Theresa
mother of Marie Antoinette, had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended the throne
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for propaganda
Huguenots
French Calvinists
Antwerp
Each day, as many as five-thousand merchants gathered in this northern Dutch city to trade goods.
Zwingli
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
rioting and slaughter killed Huguenots in France, caused the War of Three Henrys; (August 25-October 3, 1527)
Babylonian Captivity
The nickname for the transport of the church to Avignon in reference to the deportation of the Jews in the Old Testament
Tetzel
northern german clergyman who sold indulgences, representing the spiritual corruption of the church
Estates General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis
William and Mary
Joint monarchs that ruled after glorious revolution under constitutional monarchy
Masaccio
Tribute Money, the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy
Royal societies
an honorary English society (formalized in 1660 and given a Royal Charter by Charles II in 1662) through which the British government has supported science
Deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Mercantilism
government regulation of economic activity
Indulgences
remission of the punishment for sin by the clergy in return for services or payments
Desiderius Erasmus
Wrote Praise of Folly; believed that everybody should study the Bible
Girolamo Savonarola
a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages
Medieval Art
religious, often showed Jesus or saints, flat, brightly colored (red with gold background) larger than surroundings; always clothed
Protestant ethics
the self denying approach to life(financial success was a sign god was on their side so they began to live frugal lives saving their money)
Consubstantiation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
War of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Hermandades
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.443)
John Wycliff
Criticized the church & believed in personal interpretation of scripture. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
Constitutionalism
government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers
Hundred Days War
napoleon's last bid for power
Raphael
best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome.
Renaissance Art
3D, responded to light/shading, religious and everyday situations, active and looked real
Voltaire
(1694-1778) wrote satires which attacked various aspects of society; Candide
Scientific Revolution
the era of scientific thought in Europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Peace of Utrect
limited the extent to which France could expand and restored the balance of powers
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Protestant hero of the Thirty Years War; France supported him because they wanted to keep Germany split up.
Gothic Art
A dark period of art during the Middle Ages that was scorned by Renaissance contemporaries
Colbert
Louis IV's minister
despots
Absolute and irresponsible monarchs.
Giotto
Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style
Puritans
They hoped for prosperity, demanded the purification of the Church of England, and objected certain practices from Catholics.
Prussian Junkers
Threatened to be destroyed by Frederick William I, but instead enlisted them into the army
Jesuits
The Society of Jesus is a religious order of men within the Roman Catholic Church formed under the inspiration of Ignatius of Loyola
Crop Rotation
rotating crops in a cycle so that the nutrients in the soil are not exhausted
Petrarch
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
Charles II
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
Thomas More
refused to sign the Act of Succession because he wouldn't recognize Henry VIII as head of the Church and was killed in 1535; wrote Utopia
Treaty of Westphalia
1648, ended the 30 Year War and created the state system.
Harvey
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
Hapsburg-Valois War
A dynastic struggle between France and Germany that advanced the cause of Protestantism and political fragmentation of the German Empire
Thermidorean Reaction
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror that executed Robespierre
Ignatius Loyola
Catholic priest that established the Jesuits
Castiglione
Book of the Courtier
Elizabeth I
English Queen and politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise
Mary Tudor
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
Sully
Henry IV's chief financial minister
Humanism
an intellectual movement that drove the Renaissance
Baroque Art
art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation, characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit
Galileo
Invented the experimental method, formulated the law of inertia, provided evidence for the Copernican theory
Low Countries
Netherlands
ciompi
poor, propertyless workers who revolted in Florence in 1378.
Navigation Acts
Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
Frederick the Great
king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786; won the War of Austrian Succession
Oligarchy
a political system governed by a few privileged people
Jan Hus
Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation
Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Rabelais
France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest
Cottage Industry
first form of Capitalism
War of Spanish Succession
(1701-1714) Resulted from Louis XIV being offered the Spanish throne. All of Europe attacked France in this war.
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women (daughter Mary Shelly, author of Frankenstein)
Bartholomew Diaz
Portuguese explorer who rounded the Cape of Good Hope, but was forced to turn back
Martin Luther
German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Financed Portugal's explorers
Escorial
A Spanish monastery and palace built by Philip II.
Richelieu
Louis XIII's chief advisor
Diet of Worms
Charles V's assembly of German estates that declared Luther's teachings heretical.
Leonardo Bruni
wrote "New Cicero" which has the idea that humanists believe that their studies of humanism should be put to the service of the state.
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting
Leon Battista Alberti
"Men can do all things if they will." idea of the universal man.
Mazarin
Richelieu's successor regarding centralization in France, ruled France during Louis XIV's childhood
Charles I
son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland; was deposed and executed by Oliver Cromwell
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany; didn't acknowledge Calvinism

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