# Chemistry vocab. ch. 5

## Terms

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- Amplitude
- the height of a wave's crest
- Dalton's Model of an atom
- tiny, indestructile particles, with no internal structure.
- Pauli Exclusion Principle
- an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction
- Atomic Orbital
- mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations
- Frequency
- the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of the time.
- Hund's rule
- electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number or electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
- Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
- it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
- Electron Cloud Model
- a visual model of the probable locations of electrons in a model
- Crest
- the highest point of a wave
- "plum pudding" model of an aton
- pictures of electrons embeded in a sphere of positive charge.
- Quantum
- amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
- Quantum Mechanical Model
- the modern description, primiarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms
- Ground State
- the lowest possible energy of an atom described by quantum mechanics
- Aufbau Principle
- rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
- Atomic Emission Spectrum
- the pattern formed when light passes through a prism of diffraction grating to seperate it into the different frequencies of light it contains
- Hertz
- the unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second
- Photon
- a quantum of light, a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles.
- Trough
- lowest point of a wave
- Electromagnetic Radiation
- energy waves that travel in a vaccum at a speed of 2.998 x 10 to the 8th power m/s; (includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays
- Electron Configurations
- arrangement of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
- Spectrum
- wavelengths of visible light that are seperated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
- Wavelength
- distance between adjacent crests of a wave
- Rutherford's Model of an atom
- small, dense, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move around the nucleus
- Energy Levels
- the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have