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Chemistry vocab. ch. 5


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the height of a wave's crest
Dalton's Model of an atom
tiny, indestructile particles, with no internal structure.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction
Atomic Orbital
mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations
the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of the time.
Hund's rule
electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number or electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
Electron Cloud Model
a visual model of the probable locations of electrons in a model
the highest point of a wave
"plum pudding" model of an aton
pictures of electrons embeded in a sphere of positive charge.
amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
Quantum Mechanical Model
the modern description, primiarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms
Ground State
the lowest possible energy of an atom described by quantum mechanics
Aufbau Principle
rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
Atomic Emission Spectrum
the pattern formed when light passes through a prism of diffraction grating to seperate it into the different frequencies of light it contains
the unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second
a quantum of light, a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles.
lowest point of a wave
Electromagnetic Radiation
energy waves that travel in a vaccum at a speed of 2.998 x 10 to the 8th power m/s; (includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays
Electron Configurations
arrangement of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
wavelengths of visible light that are seperated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
distance between adjacent crests of a wave
Rutherford's Model of an atom
small, dense, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move around the nucleus
Energy Levels
the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have

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