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term 1;unit 2 muscle/skeletal

skeleton;muscles

Terms

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meatus
short channel or passageway. hollow tube. (urinary meatus)
Hinge
- knee- fingers
Aerobic metabolism
requires oxygen - during normal activities.
Deltoid
shoulder- injection site- subcutaneous- covers shoulder joint, abducts arm.
Flat
sternum, frontal part of forehead. Get a lot of external punctures.
foramen
large hole in center of vertebrae- for vessels and nerves
Tendons
- muscle to bone
fontanel
infant skull - soft spots - harden by 18months
ribs
12pairs total 7 true ; 5 false; 2 floating
3 primary functions of muscle
Movement and protect internal organs,Posture,Heat- production of body heat is oxygen and sugar together. Produces burn=fuel.
Hamstrings
on back of thigh
Tubercle
- - trochanter (femur) is largest tubercle.
Pelvic bones
- ilium, ischium, pubis symphisis
Pubic symphysis
more flexible to accommodate baby during childbirth.
Osteoblasts
- makes bone cells. manufacture the matrix
Upper extremity
- humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges.
Dorsiflexion
- foot bent upward toward self.
Ball & socket
- shoulder, hip
Pronation
- plams down
epicondyle
small projection above condyle
Isometric
great increase in tension.
Synovial membrane
lines joint cavity. secretes clear lubricating fluid for joint.
Condyloid
allows movement in 2 directions- knuckle.
coccygeal vertebrea
4-5 bones in CHILDREN; fuses ot 1 in ADULTS (coccyx) tail bone
Bone tissue
- living hard connective tissue. Hard substance is calcium phosphate
Quadriceps
a group- front of thigh
diaphysis
shaft of long bone
Short
carpal of wrist, tarsals of ankle. Tend to be thinner
3 Types of joints
fiberous, cartilaginous, synovial
Cartilage
- tough elastic allows movement, between bones, vertebrae, nose, ears, covers articular cartilage( joint area), pads bone
Excitability
or irritability - ability to respond to a stimulus
curves of spine
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
Ischial tuberocities
- are at the end of the crest
Pivot
rotate- between the skull and first 2 vertebrae ( axis & atlas)
appendicular
bones of extremities (126)
xiphoid process
lower end of sternum ; cartilage in youth; bone in adult- landmark for CPR
Calcaneous
- heel
Gliding joint
- wrist & ankle
Elasticity
ability to return to original length
Radius
Arms:- bone in forarm- in line with thumb- larger of two bones.
intercoastal spaces
spaces between ribs
Fascia
band or sheet of fiberous connective tissue. membrane covering supporting and separating muscles. Subcutaneous tissue connects skin to muscle.
Thoracic cavity
-Sternum, manubrium body, xipoid process
vertebral column
26 in adults - 33 or 34 in children
Articulation
joint . area of junction or union between two or more bones.
Metacarpal bones
hands - framework for palm (5)
scapula
shoulder blade
Ischium
- lowest part - sit down bone
Carpals
Wrist- hands: 8 small bones: 2 rows of 4 each
Diaphragm
breathing muscle.
Fibrous
- synarthrosis- immovable - come together with Ex:sutures -bones of skull
Tibia
- larger bone in lower leg,
Joints
- union between 2 bones or more.
endosteum
thinner membrane ; lines marrow cavity of bone.
Origins
attach to more fixed part of skeleton ( less movable)
Skeletal
- Striated- voluntary- attached to bones, muscles or skin. Stimulated by nervous system.
Femur
is largest bone- lot of blood in bone. Longest , strongest bone in body. Bone articulates at patella.
crest
rim- (ridge of hip bone, iliac crest )
axial
head & main trunk (80)
frontal bone
Skull-forehead
Visceral
Smooth- involuntary- organs- makes up walls of hollow organs, respiratory passageways. Controlled by autonomic. nervous system (automatic). stimulated by nerve impules, hormones, stretching.
head
rounded ; knoblike ( femoral head at hip joint)
Achilles tendon
attaches to clacaneus- largest tendon in body.
Appendicular
arms, legs , pelvic girdle, shoulder
Boys normally reach height
16- years old
periosteum
outside cover of bones
Minerals stored in bones
calcium, phosphorus.
Circumduction
rotates arm in wide circle
Bursa
small fluid filled sac found in an area subject to stress around bones and joints. padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue usually in vicinity of joints.
Axial skeleton
center- skull, spinal cord.
Muscle unit
framework consisting of connective tissue and blood supply.(body & 2 attachments) ***
Inversion
- foot pointed in
ethmoid bone
skull-light bone- located between eyes
Vertebral column
- 26 in adults.
Cartiledge
on the ends of the bone- hard connective tissue.
parietal bone
skull-2 bones - form most of top and side walls of cranium
sinus
open air space
Bones:functions
Framework for body Protect delicate structures. Brain, spinal cord,Produce movement,Stores calcium salts plus phosphorous, released when needed,Produce blood cells. Manufactures RBC, WBC, and platelets.
maxilla
face- 2 bones- upper jawbone
compact bone
hard and dense. makes up main shaft of long bone, and outer layer in other bones.
Bursa
sacs, synovial joint area - filled with fluid. Cushion
spine
spinous process- sharp projection from surface bone ( shoulder blade)
Atropohy
a wasting away of tissue; a decrease in size of an organ or tissue. Disuse, lack of activity.
Extencibility
stretch beyond resting length.
Cartilaginous
- amphiarthrosis- slightly moveable - cartilage joints. Ex: Pubic symphysis, joints between vertebrae
Ligament
band or sheet of strong fiberous connective tissue, Connecting to articular ends of bones binding to limit motion. To facilitate or limit movement.
Synovial fluid
- joints secrete, allows movement, reduces friction.
Plantar flexion
- toes point downward
Aponeurosis
heavy sheet of connective tissue: attach muscle to bones or other muscles. Ex: fascia
epiphysis
irregular ends of long bone
Ligaments
- tough- fiberous connective tissue, give us strength and support. Bones held together by ligaments.
Eversion
- foot pointed out
axis
2nd vertebrea- pivots - side to side
Flexion
- decreases angle
osteoblasts
bone building cells
Articulation
- joint- movement- two or more bones meeting.
Tuberocity
a landmark on bones called tubercle. Where muscles or groups of them may attach. Ex: hip area, thighs.
4 types of bone
long, short, irregular, long bone
Tendons
fiberous connective tissue; attaches muscle to bone.
osteoclasts
break down bone (resorb) derived from WBC ( monocytes)
nasal bone
face- 2 bones- slender bones side by side form bridge of nose
true ribs
first 7pairs - attatch directly to sternum by coastal cartilages.
Tissues and muscles need calcium for
strength.
Cranium
- 10 bones
Synovial
- diarthrosis- freely movable- joint cavity containing synovial fluid. UNIVERSAL joints. - gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball & socket.
depressions
foramen, sinus, fossa, meatus
Ligament
bone to bone
Irregular
- vertebrae, facial bones, mandible , coccyx cannot do punctures on.
Tonus
partial steady contracted state of muscle that determines readiness... tonicity or firmness.
mandible
face- lower jaw bone- only moveable bone of skull
suture
unites bones of skull
Abduction
- moves away from midline ab-away
medullary cavity
center of diaphysis; contains marrow
cervical vertebrea
7 - located in neck CONVEX
ligaments
connective bone to bone
Tonus
slight tension even at rest. State of readiness. Mild state of contraction.
skeleton divided into 2 sections
axial; appendiular
Types of muscles
Abductors,Levators- lifting,Rotators,Sphincter- ringlike,Adductors
spongy bone
meshy- found at ends of long bones and center of other bones. filled with red marrow
Ribs
- True first 7 pairs; False next 5 pairs; 2 floating
thoracic vertebrae
12- located in chest; points downward; posterior ends of 12 ribs attach to these vertebrae CONCAVE
Osteoclasts
-breaks down bone tissue and resorb bone tissue develops from WBC.
Bones of face
Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, palatine,inferior nasal conchae
Contractibility
ability to shorten and thicken
Cardiac
myocardium - involuntary - wall of heart. Stimulated by electrical impulses, nervous stimuli, hormones.( some striations)
sacral vertebrae
5 seperate bones in CHILDREN; fuses to 1 in ADULTS. (sacrum) wedged between 2 hip bones; completes posterior part of boney pelvis CONCAVE
osteocytes
mature bone cells that maintain bone
Insertion
attached to more moveable part of skeleton. ( moveable)
Vertebrae
- Column divisions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
condyle
a knob, rounded at the end of the bone . help make a joint move
Anaerobic metabolism
does not require oxygen. Strenuous activity. Lactic acid accumulates.
Sesamoid
- patella
shoulder girdle
scapula & clavicale make up girdle
Peristalsis
wavelike movement through GI tract.
Foot Arch
formed by metatarsals (5)
Girls normally reach height
at 15 years old
Sternocleidomastoid
location- Neck-flexes head; rotates head toward opposite side. extends from sternum across side of neck to mastoid process
foramen
hole that allowa vessel or nerve or ligament to pass through. (like a hull between bones)
yellow marrow
found in central cavities of long bones. composed largely of fat.
Occicles
bones of ear
lumbar vertebrae
5- located in small of back - heavier- support more weight. CONVEX
ATP
- energy
atlas
1st vertebrae; supports head ( nods)
thorax
sternum & ribs
floating ribs
last 2 pairs; have no anterior attachment
haversain canal
rings for blood vessels and nerves makes up haversian system.
sternum
breast bone
Insertion
end of a muscle attached to a moveable part. movable attachment of the distal end of a muscle, which produces shape changes or skeletal movement when muscle contracts.
Rotation
- "no" turning side to side. Twist or turning.
Foot
- 7 tarsals
skeleton is made up of
bones , joints, and supporting connective tissue.
fetus vertebrae
concave
false ribs
5 pairs - 8th 9th & 10th pairs ; attach to cartilage of rib above
Calcium Released
when nerve fiber stimulates muscle cell.
zygomatic
face - 2 bones- cheek
Gastrocnemius
calf of leg - flexes foot- tip toe
Tendon
cordlike fiberous band attaches muscle to bone.
Body mechanics
effective use of body alignment , related to posture and lifting. proper use of the body in daily life activities. Prevention and correction of problems related to posture & lifting.
Aging
- bones become brittle.
Isotonic
no change in tension- movement
Lower extremity
Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
3 types of muscle
visceral(smooth), skeletal(striated), cardiac(myocardium.
Saddle joint
like condyloid but with deeper articulating surface THUMB.
Ilium
Hip:-upper flared portion
woman pelvis
lighter, ilia wider and more flared, pubic arch -
Sphincter
circular muscle constricting and orifice. Muscles must relax to allow orifice to open. Muscular ring that regulates the size of an opening.
clavicle
collarbone- joins sternum anteriorly; scapula laterally- supports shoulder
Ulna
Arms:- bone in forearm- in line with pinky
Muscle fatigue
tired muscles. reduced capacitgy of a muscle to perform work as a result of repeated contractions; accumulation of lactic acid in anaerobic cell respiration.
acromion process
joins clavicale at shoulder
Spongy
( callous ) bone- found in ends of long bones, center of other bones. Where Red marrow is found, RBC are produced here. Also, WBC, and platelets.
process
a projection ( vertebrae; elbow)
Patella
- kneecap; Sesamoid bone
Tendon
attaches muscle to bone
temporal bone
skull - 2 bones - above ear- sides and base of skull
Phalanges
hands - finger bones- 14 total- 3 on each finger, 2 on thumb.
Biceps
flexes forearm- main flex muscle
sphenoid bone
skull- resembles bat lies at base of skull anterior to temporal bones. part of eye socket.
Flaccid
weak, lacking normal muscle tone. relaxed, flabby; having defective or absent muscle tone.
palatine bones
face- back of hard plate- lateral wall of nasal cavity. superior and middle conchae part of ethmoid bone.
Lower division
Pelvic bones; lower extremities
Upper division
Shoulder girdle: clavicle, scapula; upper extremities
Humerus
Arms:: head of humerus forms a jointw/ glenoid cavity of the scapula.
Acromion process
- process that joins the clavicle shoulder.
Osteocytes
- cells, maintenance of bone. maintain and repair existing bone matrix
Iliac crest
Hip:- curved rim long upper border
Trapezius
raises shoulders
projections
head, process, condyle, crest, spine
Supination
- palms up
fossa
a depression or hollow on a bone surface ( accomodates something nearby) ex: indentation in hip bone allow movement of femur (socket)
Long bone
- arms & legs- gives strength to stand, weight bearing, shaft, medullary canal, ends of bones articulate EX: femur, humerus, ulna, radius(bigger), tibia, fibula.
red marrow
found ends of long bone- center of others
Triceps
posterior arm- wave back
Bones mature at
21 years old
epiphyseal plates
develops across end of bones- growth line.
Extension
- increases angle
Marrow
soft tissue that occupies the medullary canal. bone marrow- Red-produces blood cells ; found in spongy bone. Yellow marrow- found in medullary canal of long bones. Made up of fat cells and connective tissue.
Adduction
- moves toward midline....ADDS to mid
Muscle tissue characteristics
contractibility, elasticity, extencibility, excitibilty, tonus
Rectus abdominus
poop - lower abdomen-
Greater trochanter
larger protruding portion, located at the top of the femur bone.
discs
cartilage between vertebrae- shock absorbers, provide flexiblity
mastoid sinus
skull-contained within temporal - internal portion of ear.
Olcranon
- point of elbow.
Origin
source of a muscle; starting point. End of muscle attached to a NON moveable part.

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