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Respiratory - Conditions - Part 2


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Structures and functions of the respiratory system affected by trauma or disease
conducting airways, lungs and breathing mechanics (neurol as well)
Aetiology of Pneumonia
inhaling droplets containing bacteria, viruses or fungi or spread via the blood from nearby infections. Aspiration of stomach contents
Components of breathing mechanics
intercostals, diaphragm and pleura
Intrinsic Ashtma
triggered by factors other than allergens
Acute Upper Airway bacterial infection
characterized by the presence of neutrophils in the exudate
Major function of the respiratory system
gas exchange
Reason for bacterial growth during bronchitis
bronchi becomes inflamed with excessive mucous production
Stages of Sinusitis
acute, chronic, infectious or non-infectious
how gass exchange in lungs is impaired during Emphysema
alveolar walls and small airways collapse and air is trapped in the lungs on exhalation
Function of surfactant
prevents alveolar collapse on exhalation, ensures uniform alveolar expansion on inhalation
Three possible outcomes following TB infection
complete healing, no symptoms (but bacteria remains latent) or immune system overcome
two types of Asthma
extrinsic and intrinsic
Factors influencing the volume of gas exchange
lung volume and capacity; compliance; resistance to air flow
Factors influencing chest-wall compliance
muscle spasm, thoracic deformity and abdominal distension
Compliance can change in these areas
Lungs; chest wall
Extrinsic Asthma
triggered by allergens
Causes of Upper Airway Obstruction
trauma, tumors or foreign objects
Upper Airway Infections
often a viral infection followed by a bacterial superinfection
Aetiology of Asthma
stimulants that cause the bronchi to constrict: allergens; irritants in the air; household odours; respiratory infections; emotional stress; exertion; certain medications; changes in weather; reaction to aspirin
Pathophysiology/pathogenesis of Chronic Bronchitis
progressive inflammation leading to increased size and number of mucous glands, edema and other inflammatory changes, fibrosis, dyspnoea and impaired function of ciliated cells
Lower Airway Obstruction
blockage of the trachea, bronchi, or lungs
Types of alveoli cells
(1) epithelial (alveolar walls) and (2) epithelial (surfactant)
Pathophysiology/pathogenesis of Sinusitis
mucous gets drawn into the sinuses as a result of decreased pressure encouraging microbial growth and inflammation as well as swollen mucous membranes which prevents airflow into the sinus cavities
Pathophysiology/pathogenesis of Acute Bronchitis
usually secondary bacterial infection following infection with a cold or influenza virus. Bronchi become inflamed, with excessive mucous production, encouraging bacterial growth. Normal airflow impeded,coughing to expel phlegm
Medulla Oblongata
nuerochemical control of ventilation
lack of oxygen available to tissue cells
Untreated Bronchitis leads to
emphysema, pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure
Upper Airway Obstruction
total or partial blockage of the nose, mouth, pharynx or larynx
Conditions that arises during Acute Bronchitis
infection spreads to smaller airways leading to bronchiolitis, bronchial pneumonia and pleural infection
Normal functioning of conducting airways
normally open and elastic
Normal functioning of lungs
normally elastic, sponge-like and able to enlarge
People at risk of contracting pneumonia are
lowered immunity, impaired cough reflexes, decreased states of consciousness, hospitals
Reason for Emphysema causing damage to lung tissue
inflammation leads to loss of elasticity in lungs
Causes pain during Sinusitis
influx of fluids and white blood cells since it increases pressure
Complications of Upper Airway Obstruction
hypoxemia, hypoxia, loss of consciousness, death
insufficient oxygen in the blood

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