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Intervertebral Foramen
Little holes (or gaps) in the spine where the nerves come out
How Much is Enough? (Flexibility)
SHould be done regularly to achieve optimal benefits. Must stretch and hold muscles beyond normal length for an adequate time to increase flexibility. Best time for stretching is when muscles are warm.
Levels of Body Fatness
Essential Fat; Men: 5%, Women 10%. Overfatness; Men >25%, Women >35%
PNF Stretching Technique
Initially stretch or lengthen muscle. Hold for up to 30 seconds while also contracting stretched muscle. Relax muscle for a few secs. Immediately stretch muscle again. Relax
Air Displacement Plethysmography
Bod pod; based on Boyle's Law. Measures body density
Health Benefits of Flexibility
No ideal standard for flexibility. Necessary for optimal posture. May help prevent muscle strain and such orthopedic problems like back back pain.
General Guidelines
No hyperflexion of knee or neck. No hyperextension of neck, knee or low back. No twisting to the knee. Avoid holding breath. Try to maintain proper body alignment
Thomas Test
If your right thigh lifts upward off the table while your left knee is hugged to your chest, a tight hip flexor on that side is indicated.
Back Pain
Caused by short and tight muscles causing poor posture. Need long and strong muscles to keep the body in good alignment
Neck Stretches
Bad: Full Neck Circling. Good: Partial Circling (ideally between around 9 / 3 on the clock)
Skinfold Technique
Measures subcutaneous fat. There is a linear relationship between the sum of the skinfolds and body density. Age is an independent predictor of body density for both men and women
Is exercise an effective weight loss tool?
Back to Wall Test
Stand with back against a wall with head, heels, shoulders and calves of legs touching the wall. Your partner should just be able to place a hand in the space between the wall and the small of your back. If the space is greater than the thickness of his or her hand, you probably have lordosis with shortned lumbar and hip flexor muscles
FIT Formula for Weight Loss
F: 5-7 Days a week. I: Low (40-50% of HHR, 55-65% of MHR) T: Long duration (40-60 minutes or more, around 90 recommended for those trying to keep weight off)
Hamstring Stretches
Good: Back-saver hamstring stretch. Bad: Standing toe touch, bar stretch
Safe Exercises
Exercises performed with normal body posture, mechanics and movement in mind
Ballistic Stretching
Using momentum to produce the stretch. Active or passive. Entails forceful movement and may cause injury. DYNAMIC stretching usually recommended as a safer alternative
Questionable Exercises
Those that may violate normal body mechanics and place the joints, ligaments or muscles at risk for injury. (repeated use causes injury)
Bending a joint more than normal. Closing the angle at the joint
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
Combines active and passive methods. Most effective method for improving flexibility. Promotes increase in strength
Factors Influencing Flexibility
Anatomy / structure of joint. Properties of connective tissue. Age. Gender. Misuse. Genetics
Flexibility Activity
The ability to move a joint through its full range of motion. Component of health related fitness. NOT the same as stretching. A state of being
Hydrostatic Weighing
Used to be considered the gold standard in terms of finding body density. Accurate, however time consuming and it requires special equipment. Includes Residual Volume (air in your lungs that you can't blow out) and it is based on the Archimedes principle.
Types of joints and range of motion
Ball and socket joints (hip), hinge joints (knee). Range of motion - the extent and direction of movement that is possible with a joint.
Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)
Electrical current is run through body; measure of body water.
'loose joints'
Lang Caliper
Most widely used caliper
Abdominal Exercises
Bad: Hands Behind Head Sit-Up. Good: Crunch; hands on ears
Shin and Quadricep Stretches
Good: Shin stretch and quad stretch. Bad: Standing stretch
Risky Exercises for Knee
Avoid Hurdler's stretch, kneeling while sitting on ankles and deep knee bends. Also avoid 'hero' stretch and excessive lunge
Good: Flat back. Bad: Arched back
Dynamic Stretching
Active exercise through full range of motion in order to activate muscle group and increase blood flow to target area. Been shown to enhance sports performance. Should not be used for those who are just starting a new stretching program.
Refers to the amount of motion that is possible at a given joint or series of joints.
Cellulite is a special kind of fat that appears after a person has repeatedly gained and lost weight.
Lat Pull Down
Pull weight down in front toward upper chest. Do not bring down behind the neck
1 lb (in calories)
1 lb = 3500 calories
Abdominal Exercises (more)
Bad: Double Leg Lifts. Good: Reverse Curl
Risky Exercises for Back
Avoid waist circles, bridging and cobra. Also avoid simultaneous arm and leg lifts and high donkey kicks
Anthropometric Measurements
Girth measurements - predicts percentages of body fat from circumferences
4 Stretching Methods
Static, Ballistic, PNF, Dynamic
Opening a joint angle (returning it past the normal anatomical position)
Quadricep Exercises
Good: Alternate Leg Kneel (lunges). Bad: Deep Squatting Exercise (deep knee bends)
Back Stretches
Bad: Shoulder Stand Bicycle. Good: Leg Hug
Static Stretching
Done slowly and less likely to cause injury. Stretch slowly until you feel tension, then hold stretch for several seconds. Relax the muscle and increase stretch a bit more. Can be done actively or passively
How intensity of exercise determines energy utilization
At 50% VO2 max, fat use is maximized. At about 65%, carbohydrate use replaces fat use.

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