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child pyschology chpt 11


undefined, object
copy deck
alphabet familiarity
letter names and sounds
must have actual materials, contexts and experiences (Piaget's stage 3)
combining words into sentences. ( begin to use and understand complex sentence structures.
begin in adolencence most advanced creating visual or verbal association to make info retreval more efficient
phonemic awareness
the understanding that words are made up of smaller units of sound (phonemes). children must then connect the speech sounds with the printed letters. better reader later on.
reading and writing
similar development progressions. ( kid doing well in one, usually do better in the other)
ability to arrange object in increasing to decreasing size. (logical abilities)
short term
small amount of info (5 -9 pieces) for about 30 sec, info in shorterm store is activated info (what you thinking about right now)
network model
information is hed in concept nodes which are connected by links. info activated by external or internal source.
strategy choice model
children solve math problems by choosing the fastest strategy that they can do accurately
long term
unlimited capacity and permantly stored.
computational models of thought
attempts to mimic the thought processes of humans ( complex computer programs intended to copy and predict the human design making process)
autobiographical memory
memories of highly personally significant events, often very vivid and detailed (subgroup of episodic memory that is specific to self)
concrete operational thought
(ages7 to 12)stage of cognitive development in which children are able to think about 2 or more dimensions of a problem (decentered thought), dynamic transformations, and reversible operations
stores model
information enters the sensory store, and then is passed on to short and long-term store
conscious, intentional and controllable plans people use to improve performance
connectionist models
used to understand changes in human behavior due to learning overtime
views memories as a series of different storage locations
begins in elementary school grooping similar info
begins in very early childhood
phonemic knowledge
meaning of sound of speech. ( every letter has a sound)
long-term memory
memory of information that endures over a long period of time
semantic memory
knowledge of words and concepts. and definitions, descriptions and info
1 word more that one meaning.
about age 4
children can simple calculation in their head, without need of physical objects
more likely to notice details and relationships (knowlege)
having a large knowledge base in a particular area free up thinking capacity to attend to more details of related info.
fuzzy trace theory
memory based on general ideas... not specific details (suggested people store and retrieve only the general idea of their experience.
plannning and revising
evaluating, rewriting. (children gradually learn that a good essay require a outline before the final draft.)
mental representations of the way things occur in specific settings .rules expectations or traditions that describe how events should happen.
who are less likely to use strategies than school age kids
preschool kids
long term memory characteristics - non-activated information
store info that may or may not be accessable
semantic knowlege
meaning of words. ( increase from 200 at age 2 to aobut 18,000 words at age 8, richment and diversity of words meaning increases with age and experiences.
working memory
information that is currently active in the system and available for use.
unlimited capacity
everything you've ever learned and experiences
effective interaction. ( social dynamics such as social rythm, polite conversation.
ability to consider more than one aspet of a problem at the same time (characteristics of concrete thought)
about age 2
children began to associated number words w quantity
production systems
describe the original conditions in which decision is made then describes the possible outcomes of the decision
knowledge base
the amount of information you have about a specific topic
counting strategies
approaches to solving math problems that involve counting quantities
ability to mentally reverse a series of events (characteristcs)
sensory store
information taken in by senses, held for 1/2 sec. then passed on to short and long term store
types o strategies
rehearsal, organization, and elaboration.
more information and better organization with age
refers to the ability to store new info in exsisting categories, which better understanding and easier retrieval
spelling, punctuation, capitalization. (competency of follow rules of writing appear rapidly begin in middle child)
dynamic transformations
change includes intermediate stages that dont resemble the end points (characterisitcs)
working memory characteristics
activated information, limited capacity, similar to short term memory in stores model, basic components are in place by age 6, theres is component for each of the 5 senses, 2 for attention, 1 that monitors overall activities.
inventive spelling
tu for two. (early attempt spelling, were sound combination make sense but spelling is incorrect.) (school encourage this).
class inclusion
ability to describe objects according to more than one dimension (logical abilities)
transitive inference
ability to see broader relationships among objects in a group (logical abilities)
metalinguistic awareness
explicit knowledge about language and personal use of it. ( children begin to understand jokes and verbal humor, and develop narrative skills)
reconstructive memory
parts of events and knowledge are stored; during recall we retrieve stored pieces and fill in the rest (memory that is influenced by exsisting knowledge and current context.
episodic memory
memory of events in day to day life. includes dehilds earliest memories (events, activities, and experiences)

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