This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Honors Bio Test (2/15)

- Cell transport
- Respiratory system
- Urinary system
- Osmosis
- Diffusion
- Active and passive transport (+ endocytosis)
- Hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions
Format: multiple choice, matching labelling of diagrams, open ended questions 1 or 2 (not more than 75 points)


undefined, object
copy deck
Passive Transport
- No ATP needed - Molecules like CO₂, O₂, H₂O, Glucose (small, non-polar, lipid-soluble) - Through processes like diffusion and osmosis
Active Transport
- Requires ATP - Example includes pinocytic vesicles engulfing water molecules and absorbing them into the cell - From low to high concentration - "Pumps" / Protein
- Involved in cell recognition
Cell Membrane
- Fluid mosaic model - Considered fluid because individual molecules can move side-to-side within the layer, like it's a liquid
- Engulfment
- Moving large particles out of the cell - Wastes often carried in vesicles that fuse with the membrane
Channel Proteins
- Integral proteins that charged (polar) molecules can fit through
- Sugar chains
- Only in animal cell membrane (make it more fluid)
- Outside the cell
- Inside the cell
- Between cells
Proteins in (Cell) Membrane
- Structural support - Cell recognition - Communication (chemically) - Transport
Carrier Proteins
- Move without ATP - Some aren't integral (they bond and drag molecules through lipid bilayer, and drop them on opposite side - Others change shape (imagine scissors) to move materials
Plant Cells
- Salt their cytosol (put ions in it) to make osmosis occur (so water enters)
Lymphatic System
- Fights infections - Spleens, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph (fluid) all control WBC production
- Shrinkage inside contents of a plant cell due to water leaving
- The bursting of a cell due to too much water entering
Turgor Pressur
- The pressure on a plant cell's wall due to the vacuole (water) pressing against it
Path of Air
- Nasal cavity - Pharynx - Larynx - Trachea - Bronchi - Bronchioles - Alveoli
Nasal Cavity
- Warms, filters, and moistens air - Mucus will trap bad stuff (traps particles, dust, bacteria)
- The throat
Respiratory Surfaces
- Thin: No more than 2 cell layers thick - Moist: Water "carries" gases - Near: A source of oxygen (Alveoli) and a blood supply
- Where food goes (NOT AIR)
- Vocal cords
- Flag of cartilage covering the glottis (at the base of the tongue) - Prevents food from entering the trachea
- Wind pipe - A tube leading to the chest cavity that branches off into the bronchi - Oxygen travels down this path on its way to the lungs
- Leads to the bronchioles
Respiratory Tree
- Bronchi = branches - Bronchioles = really small tubes of cartilage + smooth muscle
- The muscle that controls breathing - Curved when relaxed, straight when contracted (on inhalation)
Mechanics of Exhalation
- Diaphragm relaxes - Chest cavity volume shrinks - Higher air pressure in the chest cavity than outside, so the air is forced out
Mechanics of Inhalation
- Diaphragm contracts - Makes air pressure greater outside the now expanded chest cavity - So gasses diffuse in (from high pressure to low pressure) meaning that air moves in - Intercostal muscles + ribs help increase chest cavity volume
Urinary System
- Basic filtration system - 1 million in the kidney
- A liquid - Plasma is mainly H₂0 with dissolves "solutes"
Solutes in (the) blood
- Glucose - Amino acids - Ions - Hormones - Proteins - Enzymes - Fatty acids + glycerol
Waste in (the) blood
- Ammonia - Urea
Three Functions of (the) Nephron
(1) Filtration - filtrate doesn't have any cells (just stuff from plasma - no proteins) - The filtrate is extracted from the blood as it moves into the glomerulus, pooling in the Bowman's capsule (2) Re-absorption - As stuff passes through the distal/proximal/etc tubule, essential molecules are reabsorbed into the blood from the filtrate (like glucose, water, amino acids, ions (Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻)) (3) Secretion - The excess materials in the filtrate (including 1% of original water) are passed to the collecting duct (once here, it is urine) and then onto the ureter where it awaits transport to the bladder for eventual excretion
- Bring deoxygenated blood to the heart
- Bring oxygenated blood AWAY from the heart
Blood Flow (through) Kidney
- Renal artery (high in 0₂) - Glomerulus - Capillaries around nephron tubules (for reabsorption, passes distal + proximal tubule) - Renal Vein, where it merges with other veins going back to the heart
Filtrate Flow (through) Kidney
- Glomerulus - Bowman's Capsule - Proximal tubule - "Coily" Tubule - Loop of Henle - Collecting ducts (URINE) - Collecting ducts merge to make ureter - Renal pelvis (might be between ducts and ureter, might be between ureter and bladder) - Bladder - Urethra (out)
Blood Vessels
- "Net" around alveoli
- "Ball" of capillaries - Blood flows through here before heading to the rest of the capillaries and filtrate is extracted to pool in Bowman's capsule
7 Functions of (the) Plasma Membrane
(1) Protective barrier (SUPPORTS CELL) (2) Regulate transport in and out of cell (SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE) (3) Provide anchoring sites for filaments or cytoskeleton (4) Allow CELL RECOGNITION (5) Provide a binding site for enzymes (6) Interlocking surfaces bind cells together (junctions) (7) Contains the cytoplasm (M) Excretion of wastes
Phospholipid Head
- Polar - Phosphate group + Glycerol
Phospholipid Tail
- Non-polar
Hydrophobic Molecules
- Pass through easily
Hydrophilic Molecules
- Don't pass easily
Simple Diffusion
- Requires no energy - Molecules move from high concentration to low concentration - Passive because no energy is used
- The diffusion of water across a cell membrane - Process involving the movement of water molecules across a semipermable membrane down the concentration gradient (molecules moving w/ their own kinetic energy)
High Water Potential
- Low solute concentration
Low Water Potential
- High solute concentration
- Pores that water diffuses through (hollow proteins/water channels)
Facilitated Diffusion
- Passage of materials is aided both by concentration gradient and a transport protein (still not active)
Active Transport
- Energy must be expended to move molecules through transport proteins against the concentration gradient
- Moves out of the cell through facilitated diffusion (like Amino Acids)
Na⁺-K⁻ Pump
- The sodium potassium pump moves 3 sodium ions out for every 2 potassium ions moved into the cell, creating a voltage across the cell called the membrane potential
- "Cell Drinking"
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
- Involves protein receptors recognizing hormones to help move them into the cell - It's how cholesterol gets in - Receptors latch onto specific molecules (not "generic" endocytosis)
- AKA "Cell Eating" - Example: WBCs engulfing bacterial (vesicle containing bacteria combines w/ lysosome to digest cell AFTER this process occurs)
Cartilage rings
- Hard tissue - These are present to support the trachea - They keep the tube from collapsing so airflow can continue
- Paths that air travels through on its way to the Alveoli (small tubes of muscle, bigger ones having cartilage)
- Sacks of oxygen in the lung - Oxygen from these microscopic cavities can diffuse into the blood stream
- Bones (protect the lung in the "thracic" cavity)
Thacic Cavity
- AKA Chest Cavity
Intercostal Muscles
- With ribs, these form the chest wall - By contracting, they help increase or decrease the size of the chest cavity
Loop of Henle
- Filtrate flows from the proximal tubule to here, where it is concentrated (and the water is removed) and passed to the distal tubule
Distal Tubule
- Operates during tubule secretion to remove wastes not filtered by the proximal tubule
Proximal Tubule
- Cells here remove water and nutrients from the filtrate so they can be returned to the blood
Integral Proteins
- AKA "Intrinsic" or "Transmembrane"
- Are all large molecules that use proteins to help move across membrane
- A solution surrounding the cell with the same concentration of water and solute as inside the cell
- A solution surrounding the cell with a lower concentration of water than inside the cell
- A solution surrounding the cell with a higher concentration of water than inside the cell
Ion Pump
- One type of active transport - An example is the Sodium-Potassium pump
Transport Protein
- AKA Transmembrane/Integral Protein - Used to pump ions through the membrane (also other molecules)

Deck Info