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CNA - Vacabulary

Terms

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Ambulation
walking.
Chronic
refers to the fact that a disease or condition is long-term or long-lasting.
Partial weight bearing (PWB)
the ability to support some weight on one or both legs.
Homeostasis
the name for the condition in which all of the body's systems are working their best.
Ergonomics
the practice of designing equipment and work tasks to suit the worker's abilities.
Extension
straightening a body part.
Abuse
purposely causing physical, mental, or emotional pain or injury to someone.
Systemic infection
an infection that occurs when pathogens enter the bloodstream and move throughout the body; causes general symptoms.
Positioning
helping people into positions that will be comfortable and healthy.
Dorsiflexion
bending backward.
Force fluids
a medical order for a person to drink more fluids.
Fracture
a broken bone.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
a federal government agency that issues guidelines to protect and improve health.
Delusions
believing things that are not true.
Involuntary seclusion
confinement or separation from others in a certain area; done without consent or against one's will.
Straight catheter
a catheter that does not stay in the body and is removed immediately after urine is drained.
Care team
people with different education and experience who help care for residents.
Psychosocial needs
needs which involve social interaction, emotions, intellect, and spirituality.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
disorder in which a person uses obsessive behavior to cope with anxiety.
Modified diet
a special diet for people who have certain illnesses; also called special or therapeutic diet.
Sexual abuse
forcing a person to perform or participate in sexual acts.
Dementia
a serious loss of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, reasoning, and communicating.
Dangle
to sit up with the feet over the side of the bed to regain balance.
Enema
a specific amount of water flowed into the colon to eliminate stool.
Psychological abuse
emotionally harming a person by threatening, scaring, humiliating, intimidating, isolating, insulting, or treating him or her as a child; also includes verbal abuse.
Elimination
the process of expelling solid wastes that are not absorbed into the cells.
Diuretics
drugs that reduce fluid in the body.
Fracture pan
a bedpan used for residents who cannot assist with raising their hips onto a regular bedpan.
Unoccupied bed
a bed made while no person is in the bed.
Microorganism
a tiny living thing always present in the environment; not visible to the eye without a microscope.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
an infectious disease caused by bacteria that are resistant to many antibiotics.
Adduction
moving a body part toward the body.
Objective information
information based on what is seen, heard, touched, or smelled.
Rheumatoid arthritis
a type of arthritis in which joints become red, swollen, and very painful, and movement is restricted.
Assistive devices
special equipment that helps a person who is ill or disabled to perform ADLs; also called adaptive devices.
Masturbation
to touch or rub sexual organs in order to give oneself or another person sexual pleasure.
Dilate
to widen.
Pressure points
areas of the body that bear much of its weight.
Pathogens
harmful microorganisms. Pediculosis$an infestation of lice.
Angina pectoris
chest pain.
Localized infection
an infection limited to a specific part of the body; the infection has local symptoms.
Financial abuse
stealing, taking advantage of, or improperly using the money, property, or other assets of another.
Phobia
intense form of anxiety.
Suppository
a medication given rectally to cause a bowel movement.
Fluid overload
a condition in which the body is unable to handle the amount of fluid consumed.
Flexion
bending a body part.
Emotional lability
laughing or crying without any reason, or when it is inappropriate.
Infection control
set of methods used to control and prevent the spread of disease.
First aid
care given in an emergency before trained medical professionals can take over.
Therapeutic diet
a special diet for people who have certain illnesses; also called special or modified diet.
Residents' Rights
numerous rights identified by the OBRA law for residents in long-term care facilities or nursing homes; purpose is to inform residents and others of their rights within these facilities and to provide an ethical code of conduct for healthcare workers.
Aphasia
the inability to speak or to speak clearly.
Subjective information
information that cannot be or was not observed; based on what a person thinks or something that was reported by another that may or may not be true.
Panic disorder
a disorder in which a person is terrified for no known reason.
Scalds
burns caused by hot liquids.
Professionalism
how a person behaves when he or she is on the job.
Ostomy
the surgical removal of a portion of the intestines.
Perseverating
the repetition of a word, phrase, question, or activity over and over.
Incontinence
the inability to control the bladder or bowels.
Pre-diabetes
a condition in which a person's blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes.
Cultural diversity
the variety of people living and working together in the world.
Nutrition
how the body uses food to maintain health.
Systolic
phase where the heart is at work, contracting and pushing blood out of the left ventricle.
Tuberculosis (TB)
a bacterial infection that affects the lungs; causes coughing, difficulty breathing, fever, and fatigue.
Body mechanics
the way the parts of the body work together whenever a person moves.
Range of motion (ROM) exercises
exercises that put a particular joint through its full arc of motion. .
Home care
care provided in a person's home.
Verbal abuse
oral or written words, pictures, or gestures that threaten, embarrass, or insult a person.
Quadriplegia
loss of function of legs, trunk, and arms.
Restorative services
care used to keep a person at the level achieved by the rehabilitation team.
Open bed
folding the linen down to the foot of the bed.
OBRA (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act)
law passed by the federal government that established minimum standards for nursing assistant training.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
a law that requires health information be kept private and secure; organizations must take special steps to protect health information.
Diabetes
a condition in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin; causes problems with circulation and can damage vital organs.
Skilled care
medically necessary care given by a skilled nurse or therapist.
Acute
an illness that has severe symptoms.
Digestion
the process of breaking down food so that it can be absorbed into the cells.
Fecal impaction
a hard stool stuck in the rectum that cannot be expelled.
Expiration
exhaling air out of the lungs.
Contractures
the permanent and often painful stiffening of a joint and muscle.
Sims'
position with person lying on his or her left side with one leg drawn up.
Ethics
the knowledge of right and wrong.
Assault
when a person feels fearful that he will be touched without his permission.
Laws
rules set by the government to protect the people and to help them live peacefully together.
Verbal communication
written or spoken messages.
Anxiety
uneasiness or fear, often about a situation or condition.
Culture
a system of behaviors people learn from the people they grow up and live with.
Supination
turning upward.
Inspiration
breathing air into the lungs.
Palliative
care that focuses on the comfort and dignity of the person, rather than on curing him or her.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
medical procedures used when a person's heart or lungs have stopped working.
Asepsis
term meaning that no infection is present.
Sexual harassment
any unwelcome sexual advance or behavior that Creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.
Liability
a legal term that means someone can be held responsible for harming someone else.
Cognition
the ability to think logically and quickly.
Assisted living
facilities where residents live who need some assistance; they do not usually require skilled care.
Personal
refers to life outside one's job, such as family, friends, and home life.
C. difficile (C. diff clostridium difficile)
a bacterial illness that can cause diarrhea and colitis; spread by spores in feces that are difficult to kill.
Gait
manner of walking.
Closed bed
a bed completely made with the bedspread and blankets in place.
Catastrophic reaction
overreacting to something in an unreasonable way.
Amputation
removal of some or all of a body part.
Abduction
moving a body part away from the body.
Combative
violent or hostile behavior.
Special diet
a diet for people who have certain illnesses; also called therapeutic or modified diet.
Respiration
the process of breathing air into the lungs and exhaling air out of the lungs.
Shock
a condition in which the organs and tissues in the body do not receive adequate blood supply.
Care plan
a plan developed for each resident to achieve certain goals.
Ombudsman
a legal advocate for residents who visits the facility, listens to residents, and decides what course of action to take if there is a problem.
Inflammation
swelling.
Apathy
a lack of interest.
Dehydration
a serious condition in which there is not enough fluid in the body.
Specimen
a sample.
Chain of infection
a way to describe how disease is transmitted from one living being to another.
Acute care
care performed in hospitals and ambulatory surgical centers.
Paraplegia
loss of function of lower body and legs.
Pacing
walking back and forth in the same area.
Diastolic
phase when the heart relaxes.
Sterilization
measure used to decrease the spread of pathogens and disease by destroying all microorganisms, not just pathogens.
Incident
an accident or an unexpected event during the course of care.
Diagnosis
a medical condition.
Lateral
position with person on his or her side.
Hand hygiene
handwashing with soap and water and using alcohol-based hand rubs.
Atrophy
the wasting away, decreasing in size, and weakening of muscles.
Stress
the state of being frightened, excited, confused, in danger, or irritated.
Tact
the ability to understand what is proper and appropriate when dealing with others.
Substance abuse
the use of legal or illegal drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol in a way that harms oneself or others.
Bony prominences
areas of the body where the bone lies close to the skin.
Flammable
easily ignited and capable of burning quickly.
Confusion
the inability to think clearly.
Phantom sensation
pain or feeling from a body part that has been amputated.
Hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body, weakness, or loss of movement.
Stoma
an artificial opening in body.
Droplet Precautions
used when the disease-causing microorganism does not stay suspended in the air and travels only short distances after being expelled.
Perineum
the area between the genitals and anus.
Bloodborne pathogens
microorganisms found in human blood; can cause infection and disease in humans.
Hepatitis
the inflammation of the liver caused by different viruses.
Disinfection
measure used to decrease the spread of pathogens and disease by destroying pathogens.
Residents
the people who live in nursing homes.
Diet cards
cards that list the resident"s name and information about special diets, allergies, likes and dislikes, and other instructions.
Intravenous (IV)
into a vein.
Defense mechanisms
unconscious behaviors used to release tension or cope with stress.
Informed consent
the process in which a person, with the help of his doctor, makes informed decisions about his health care.
Airborne Precautions
used for diseases that can be transmitted through the air after being expelled.
Restraint-free
an environment in which restraints are not used for any reason.
Restrict fluids
a medical order for a person to limit fluids.
Osteoarthritis
a type of arthritis that usually affects hips and knees and joints of the fingers, thumbs, and spine.
Fluid balance
maintaining equal input and output, or taking in and eliminating equal amounts of fluid.
Supine
position with person lying flat on his or her back.
Osteoporosis
a condition in which the bones become brittle and weak; may be due to age, lack of hormones, not enough calcium in bones, alcohol, or lack of exercise.
Radial pulse
the pulse site found on the inside of the wrist.
Hypertension
high blood pressure.
Logrolling
moving a person as a unit, without disturbing the alignment of the body.
Aspiration
the inhalation of food or drink into the lungs; can cause pneumonia or death.
Neglect
failing to provide needed care.
Prone
position with person lying on his or her stomach.
Menopause
the stopping of menstrual periods.
Insulin
a hormone that converts glucose, or natural sugar, into energy for the body.
Conscientious
always trying to do one's best.
Reality Orientation
uses calendars, clocks, signs, and lists to help people with Alzheimer's disease remember who and where they are.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
a barrier between a person and disease.
Catheter
a tube used to drain urine from the bladder.
False imprisonment
the unlawful restraint of someone which affects the person's freedom of movement; includes both the threat of being physically restrained and actually being physically restrained.
Adult daycare
care given at a facility during daytime hours; generally for people who need some help but are not seriously ill or disabled.
Prosthesis
an artificial body part.
Postmortem care
care of the body after death.
Dependable
being on time and helping others when they need it.
Constipation
the difficult and often painful elimination of a hard, dry stool.
Validating
giving value to or approving.
Wandering
walking aimlessly around the facility.
Workplace violence
abuse of staff by residents or other staff members; can be verbal, physical, or sexual.
Adaptive devices
special equipment that helps a person who is ill or disabled to perform ADLs; also called assistive devices.
Physical abuse
any treatment, intentional or not, that causes harm to a person's body; includes slapping, bruising, cutting, burning, physically restraining, pushing, shoving, or rough handling.
Scope of practice
defines the things a nursing assistant is allowed to do and how to do them correctly.
Activity Therapy
therapy for people with Alzheimer's djsease that uses activities to prevent boredom and frustration.
Domestic violence
abuse by spouses or intimate partners.
Output
eliminated fluid in urine, feces, and vomitus; it also includes perspiration and moisture in the air that is exhaled.
Combustion
the process of burning.
Non-weight bearing (NWB)
the inability to support any weight on one or both legs.
Charting
writing down information.
Pressure sore
a serious wound resulting from skin breakdown; also known as a bed sore or decubitus ulcer.
Puree
to chop, blend, or grind food into a thick paste of baby food consistency.
Negligence
the failure to provide the proper care for a resident, resulting in unintended injury.
Pillaging
taking things that belong to someone else.
Nonverbal communication
communication without using words.
Sputum
mucus coughed up from the lungs.
Oral care
care of the mouth, teeth, and gums.
Gastrostomy
an opening in the stomach and the abdomen.
Dentures
artificial teeth.
OSHA (The Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
a federal government agency that makes rules to protect workers from hazards on the job.
Intake
the fluid a person consumes.
Chain of command
the order of authority within a facility.
Sympathy
sharing in the feelings and difficulties of others.
Condom catheter
an external catheter that has an attachment on the end that fits onto the penis; also called a Texas catheter.
Post-traumatic stress disorder
anxiety-related disorder caused by a traumatic experience.
.Hormones
chemicals that control numerous body functions.
Pronation
turning downward.
Transfer belt
a belt made of canvas or other heavy material used to assist residents who are weak, unsteady, or uncoordinated; also called a gait belt.
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
a resistance caused by a person not taking all of a powerful antibiotic called Vancomycin.
Tumor
a group of abnormally growing cells.
Dysphagia
difficulty swallowing.
Validation Therapy
therapy for people with Alzheimer's disease that lets them believe they live in the past or in imaginary circumstances.
Communication
the process of exchanging information with others.
Disorientation
confusion about time or place.
Hoarding
collecting and putting things away in a guarded way.
Gestational diabetes
a condition in which pregnant women who have never had diabetes before have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Draw sheets
turning sheets that are placed under residents who are unable to assist with turning, lifting, or moving up in bed.
Hallucinations
seeing or hearing things that are not there.
PEC tube
a feeding tube placed through the skin directly into the stomach.
Ageism
prejudice toward, stereotyping of, and/or discrimination against older persons or the elderly.
Nasogastric tube
a special feeding tube that is inserted into the nose going to the stomach.
Double-bagging
putting waste in a trash bag, closing it, and putting the first bag in a second, clean trash bag and closing it.
Subacute care
care performed in either a hospital or a traditional nursing home.
Metabolism
the body's physical and chemical processes.
Reproduce
to create new human life.
Indwelling catheter
a catheter that stays in the bladder for a period of time.
Long-term care (LTC)
care for persons who require 24-hour care and assistance.
Rehabilitation
managed by professionals to restore a person to the highest possible level of functioning after an illness or injury.
Nosocomial infection
an infection acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility; also known as hospital-acquired infection (HAI).
Cliches
phrases that are used over and over again and do not really mean anything.
Procedure
a particular method, or way, of doing something.
Constrict
to close.
Stressor
something that causes stress.
Glands
structures that secrete fluids.
Affected side
a weakened side from a stroke or injury; also called the "weaker" or "involved" side.
Rotation
turning a joint.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
a special type of feeding in which a person receives nutrients directly into the bloodstream.
Considerate
being understanding of residents' feelings and privacy.
Advance directives
documents that allow people to choose what kind of medical care they wish to have if they are unable to make those decisions themselves.
Outpatient care
care usually provided for less than 24 hours for persons who have had treatments or surgery requiring short-term skilled care. .
Obstructed airway
a condition in which a person has something blocking the tube through which air enters the lungs.
Occupied bed
a bed made while a person is in the bed.
Policy
a course of action that should be taken every time a certain situation occurs.
Empathy
being able to enter into the feelings of others.
Fowler's
position with the person partially reclined.
Hemiparesis
weakness on one side of the body.
Compassionate
caring, concerned, empathetic, and understanding.
Hospice
care for individuals who have six months or less to live; provides physical and emotional care and comfort.
Terminal illness
a disease or condition that will eventually cause death.
Portable commode
a chair with a toilet seat and a removable container underneath.
Edema
swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues.
Contact Precautions
used when a resident is at risk of transmitting or contracting a microorganism from touching an infected object or person.
Restraint alternatives
any intervention used in place of a restraint or that reduces the need for a restraint.
Professional
having to do with work or a job.
Reminiscence Therapy
therapy for people with Alzheimer's disease that encourages talking about the past.
Autoimmune illness
condition in which the body's immune system attacks normal tissue in the body.
Confidentiality
keeping private things private.
Battery
when a person is touched without his or her permission.
Restraint
a physical or chemical way to restrict voluntary movement or behavior.
Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
personal care tasks a person does every day to care for him- or herself; include bathing, dressing, caring for teeth and hair, toileting, eating and drinking, and moving around.

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