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IDs 1-14 Ch 18


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Tycho Brahe
fascinated by the idea that men could know the motions of the stars so accurately that they were able to predict their places and positions- studied astronomy in several different countries, and then returned to Denmark and built the most sophisticated observatory of his time- observed and recorded information about the stars and planets, making his greatest contribution all of the data
the theory that the sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System
Johannes Kepler
: from Brahe's data, Johannes Kepler, Brahe's assistant, formulated three laws of planetary motion-(1) the orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather than circular-(2) the planets don't move at a uniform speed-(3) the time a planet takes to make its complete orbit is related to its distance from the sun- Kepler proved mathematically the precise relations of a sun-centered solar system
Isaac Newton
combined and synthesized the findings of Brahe, Kepler, Galileo and others into a single explanatory system that would comprehend motion both on earth and in the skies- key component of his synthesis was the law of universal gravitation- published his book, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, otherwise known as Principia, in 1687
the disregarding of scientific theory and dependence on experience through experiments
lived in 2nd century AD; worked out complicated rules to explain the minor irregularities in the movement of the planets
examined motion and mechanics through the experimental method-he established the law of inertia- discovered the first four moons of Jupiter which proved that Jupiter could not be in an impenetrable crystal sphere- wrote a book entitled Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World in 1632, after which he was tried for heresy and thrown into jail where he recanted
Scientific method
the joining of precise observations and experimentalism with the search for general laws that may be expressed in rigorously logical, mathematical language
the disproven theory that the Earth is at the center of the universe and the Sun and other objects go around it
lived in 4th century BC; believed that the earth was center of universe and ten separate transparent crystal spheres moved about it-moon, sun, five known planets, fixed stars, two more for changes in stars positions over time-other spheres consisted of a perfect, incorruptible fifth essence-earth was made up of 4 imperfect, changeable elements (light elements) air and fire naturally moved upward while (heavy elements) water and earth naturally moved downward-uniform force moved an object at a constant speed and that object would stop as soon as the force was removed
Francis Bacon
greatest early propagandist for the new experimental method-knowledge had to be pursued through experimental research-contribution was formulation of empirical method (empiricism)-provided radically new and effective justification for private and public support of scientific inquiry (greater control over physical environment and make people rich and nations powerful as result of scientific discoveries-highly practical, useful knowledge as result of empirical method)
Nicholas Copernicus
the sun was the center of the universe and the stars and the planets, including the earth, moved around the sun- the stars were in fixated spots and weren't rotating spheres moving around the earth- universe was of an unimaginable size-many religious leaders attacked Copernicus for his ideas because his theory meant that no one knew where the heavenly realm existed-he published his book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres until 1543, the year of his death
René Descartes
made first great discovery in math-perfect correspondence between geometry and algebra and that geometrical, spatial figures could be expressed as algebraic equations and vice versa (analytic geometry)philosophy of knowledge and science-Cartesian dualism
Scientific Revolution
the emergence of modern science-precise knowledge of the physical world based on the union of experimental observations with sophisticated mathematics

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