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Patho Test Respiratory

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Acute upper airway bacterial infection
Characterized by the presence of neutrophils in the exudate
Aetiology of tonsillitis
Virusses (Eppstein-Barr or rhinovirusses) and bacteria (streptococcal)
Influenza
An acute upper respiratory tract infection caused by a virus. Symptoms include muscle aches, high fever, sneezing and sore throat.
Pathogenesis of asthma
Airways become inflamed and contract due to stimulation.Bronchial spasms occur with excess mucous formation and impeded air flow. Inhalation is normal, but expiration is limited, causing hyperinflation of the lungs. Attacks can be fatal
Factors influencing the volume of gas exchange
Lung volume and capacity; compliance; resistance to air flow
Pathogenesis of sinusitis
Can be acute, chronic, infectious or non-infectious. Mucous membranes become swollen, preventing airflow into the sinus cavities. Mucous is drawn into the sinusses as a result of decreased pressure, encouraging microbial growth and inflammation. The influx of fluids and white blood cells increases pressure, causing pain.
Function of surfactant
Prevents alveolar collapse on exhalation, ensures uniform alveolar expansion on inhalation
Symptoms of tuberculosis
Sudden unexplained weight loss; night sweats; chronic coughing, with or without blood in the sputum.
Aetiology of pneumonia
Inhaling droplets containing bacteria, virusses or fungi or spread via the blood from nearby infections. Aspiration of stomach contents. People most at risk of contracting pneumonia are those with lowered immunity, impaired cough reflexes, decreased states of consciousness (anaesthesia, alcolhol intoxication); people in hospitals or other institutions
Pathogenesis of emphysema
Initial inflammation leads to loss of elasticity in the lungs and damage to lung tissue. Alveolar walls and small airways collapse and air is trapped in the lungs on exhalation, impairing the exchange of CO2 and O2 in the lungs. Initially hyperventilation occurs, eventually leading to hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure.
Pharyngitis
An inflammation of the pharynx - sore throat - often accompanies a cold or tonsillitis.
Aetiology of tuberculosis
Bacterial infection from mycobacterium tuberculosis through droplets or dust particles. Only host is humans. Also (less common) from mycobacterium bovis in unpasteurized milk.
Pathogenesis of bronchitis
Acute (less than 90 days): usually secondary bacterial infection following infection with a cold or influenza virus. Bronchi become inflamed, with excessive mucous production, encouraging bacterial growth. Normal airflow is impeded with coughing to expell phlegm. Infection can spread to the smaller airways, causing bronchiolitis, bronchial pneumonia and pleural infection. Chronic: (longer than 90 days): progressive inflammation leading to increased size and number of mucous glands, edema and other inflammatory changes, reduction in number and function of ciliated cells, fibrosis of the airways, dyspnoea. Can develop into emphysema, pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure if left untreated.
Compliance can change in these areas
Lungs; chest wall
Aetiology of bronchitis
Acute bronchitis: viral or bacterial infection or exposure to irritants. Chronic bronchitis: cigarette smoke, air pollutants; sometimes hereditary; prolonged viral or bacterial infection
Symptoms of influenza
Muscle pains, especially in the back and legs; high temperature; chills, especially at the beginning; coughing (at first dry then productive) and sneezing; nasal discharge; sore throat; irritated watery eyes; headaches; nausea and vomiting, esp. in children; aversion to bright lights; loss of sense of smell
Causes of upper airway obstruction
Trauma, tumors, foreign objects
Factors influencing chest-wall compliance
muscle spasm, thoracic deformity and abdominal distension
Hypoxia
Lack of oxygen available to tissue cells
COAD (Chronic obstructive airway disease)
A term used to describe chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Symptoms of emphysema
Shortness of breath on exertion; coughing; barrel chest; finger clubbing; fatigue
Rhinitis
An inflammation and swelling of the mucous membranes of the nose, with discharge or stuffiness. Often caused by a cold or allergies.
Lower airway obstruction
Blockage of the trachea, bronchi, or lungs
Upper airway infections
Often a viral infection followed by a bacterial superinfection
Symptoms of sinusitis
Acute: Facial pain; headache; swelling over the sinus areas (maxillary, frontal or ethmoid); yellow or green discharge from the nose; possibly fever. Chronic: blocked nose; postnasal drip; coloured discharge; decreased sense of smell; general feeling of ill-health
Pathogenesis of tuberculosis
Inhaled microbes multiply in the lung tissue, causing inflammation. Sensitization occurs, with macrophages surrounding microbes and forming Ghon foci (encapsulated microbes). Foci can calcify, stopping further spread of the disease, or microbes can survive in the foci, causing secondary infection when the immune system is challenged. Infection can spread throughout the lung, causing damage to lung tissue or to the rest of the body via the lymph system, causing widespread infection, which is potentially fatal.
Symptoms of asthma
Wheezing; coughing; tight feeling in the chest; shortness of breath; hyperinflation; anxiety
Symptoms of pneumonia
Productive cough; chest pain; chills; fever; shortness of breath; aspiratory cackles
Aetiology of sinusitis
Bacterial infection resulting from blockage of the sinus cavities when mucous membranes swell as a result of viral infection or allergies.
Tonsillitis
An inflammation of the palantine tonsils due to viral or bacterial infection, leading to redness, pain, fever, swelling and difficulty swallowing.
Bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi caused by an infection or inhalation of irritants.
Tuberculosis
An infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body.
Pneumonia
An infection of the alveoli in the lungs caused by pathogens, leading to inflammation, chest pain, coughing and fever.
Symptoms of tonsillitis
Greyish-white discharge or spots on the tonsils; red, swollen tonsils; fever; difficulty swallowing; enlarged cervical lymph glands; headache; earache
Three possible outcomes following TB infection
Complete healing; No symptoms but bacteria remains latent; Immune system overcome and TB remains active
Pathogenesis of tonsillitis
Lumps of lymphatic tissue at the back of the throat become infected, causing inflammation, swelling and redness. Cervical lymph glands enlarge and tonsils may become suppurative. Untreated bacterial tonsillitis can result in rheumatic fever.
Aetiology of emphysema
Cigarette smoking; overexposure to chemicals and other air pollutants; old age; hereditary factors (deficiency of an enzyme); gender - more prevalent in males
Laryngitis
An inflammation of the larynx or voice box, leading to hoarseness or loss of voice.
Aetiology of influenza
Infection with influenza virus A or B through inhalation of droplets from an infected person, direct contact with an infected person's secretions or contaminated surfaces
These structures and functions of the respiratory system are affected by trauma or disease
Conducting airways (normally open, elastic); Lungs (normally elastic, sponge-like and able to enlarge; Breathing mechanics (intercostals, diaphragm and pleura); Neurochemical control of ventilation (medulla oblongata)
Upper airway obstruction
Total or partial blockage of the nose, mouth, pharynx or larynx
Types of alveoli cells
Type 1 epithelial (alveolar walls) and Type 2 epithelial (surfactant)
Major function of the respiratory system
Gas exchange
Pathogenesis of influenza
Symptoms start 24-48 hours after infection, usually suddenly. Virus causes high temperatures, muscle aches and pains and upper respiratory inflammation. Usually runs its course over several days or weeks, but complications can include secondary bacterial infections and pneumonia.
Emphysema
A chronic respiratory disease with over-inflammation of the alveoli causing decreased lung function and breathlessness. Often caused by smoking.
Aetiology of asthma
Two types: extrinsic (triggered by allergens) and intrinsic (triggered by other factors). Stimulants that cause the bronchi to constrict: allergens; irritants in the air; household odours; respiratory infections; emotional stress; exertion; certain medications; changes in weather; reaction to aspirin
Complications of upper airway obstruction
hypoxemia, hypoxia, loss of consciousness, death
Hypoxemia
insufficient oxygen in the blood
Pathogenesis of pneumonia
Infective organisms multiply in the lung area, causing the alveoli to become inflamed and filled with fluid. This leads to impaired O2 and CO2 exchange and if the infection spreads, the pleura can also become infected. Further complications include pleural effusions and pus formation in the pleural cavity.
Asthma
A chronic respiratory condition in which the bronchi become inflamed, consricted and lined with excessive mucous, making it difficult to breathe.
Sinusitis
Inflammation of the sinusses, caused by an infection or allergy.

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