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Exam 2


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Period (T)
time taken to complete one complete cycle, unit = time (msec, sec)
extrinsic muscle
attachment on skeletal frame, more spatial position of tongue
simultaneous production of C's and V's at the same time; responsible for non-invariance problem
Wickelgren's context sensitive allophone theory
i. Each allophone becomes associated with the next and becomes learned in that specific order; ii. Criticisms: 1. too many allophone sequences to memorize 2. cannot explain spoonerisms 3. cannot explain coarticulation (coarticulatory effects that are further away for immediate neighbor; ie: lip rounding occurrence way before it's actually needed)
levator palatini
elevates velum
neuromuscular compensation
a. mentalis inactivated when jaw activated and vice- versa (another way to get the job done) b. many ways to get the job done.... Jaw muscle vs. mentalis muscle c. Mentalis compensated for the lack of jaw raising and elevates the lower lip independently of the jaw. This is compensatory adjustment = motor equivalence
transverse muscle
narrows and elongates tongue
motor equivalence
capacity of a motor system to achieve the same end-product with considerable variation in the individual components that contribute to that output.
force loading
d. Brain is in touch with each participant in the goal e. When one is in trouble, the brains helps out f. Brain doesn't program LL muscles equally each time, different ratio of input. Shows alternating contributions g. Based on feedback h. Not a reflex because times are inconsistent... reflexes are consistent. i. The system automatically adjusts to work
attached to mandible anteriorly, largest muscle of tongue, protrudes tongue, can retract tongue and pull downwards
best by levator palatini
nasalized second syllable
distance from rest at any time in cycle
Non variance issue
Elusive nature of spoken speech; Perceptual invariance; Acoustic variance; Ear hears different physically but the brain processes the letter as the same sound, /d/ dOg, dIg, dUg --- brain hears as a /d/ but the ear can perceive the CV segment to determine the different vowels, CV segments are coordinated gestures
intrinsic muscles of tongue
transverse, vertical, superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal
Henke's compatibility notion
a. mechanism the speaker uses to look ahead and give command ahead of time, sounds produced simultaneously, continuously,
speed of sound
34,000 cm/sec, 1130 ft/ sec
inferior longitudinal
shorten and curls tip down
R-L (anticipatory)
i. Neuromotor command initiated while present sound is being produced..... anticipates the future sound, so it alters form to be able to produce the future sound ii. Lip rounding for vowels iii. Command to rounding lips is closest we can get to brain, measures electrical commands to muscle, brain gives command way in advance
Une sinistre structure
lip rounding began six elements befor e/y/ and across word boundary
more damp
inconsistent energy
superior longitudinal
shortens and curls tip up
Look ahead scanner
a. gives the signal to production system to initiate lip rounding as soon as [a] is over
best by palatoglossus
nasal sounds
extrinsic muscles of tongue
genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus
the movement of air particles closer together than normal equilibrium position which causes an increase in air pressure at hose points; peaks/ crests of soundwaves; have largest amplitude in positive direction
bite block study
b. The system knows how to find equilibrium and does not rely on feedback
pulls tongue up and back
jaw labial study
a. Jaw is anticipating the sounds so it stays where least works needs to be produced; Screw up the lip muscle
tiku/taku study
f. Biomechanics of face muscle during speech is sensed by CNS and it uses that status and contextual conditions (neutral segments between vowels) to adjust anticipatory co-articulation signals.
pulls tongue downward
L-R (carryover)
i. Realization carries over ii. Nasalization due to mechanics iii. Involved with mechanical and timing constraints, less informative of brain processes
when air particles move further apart than their normal resting equilibrium position; a decrease in pressure occurs at this point; trough/valleys; have largest amplitude in negative direction of cycle
vertical muscle
flattens tongue
tongue spatial awareness
due to muscle spindles that tell ongoing change of tongue position, 3D muscles
relative timing of a vibration (usually in relation to another vibration), unit = degrees (90, 180, etc)
maximum displacement
lowers velum
Frequency (f):
# of complete cycles of vibration per second, unit = hertz (Hz)
loss of energy over time
light damp
consistent energy
intrinsic muscle
both attachments within tongue, changes contour/shape of tongue

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