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Texes CHAPTER 1 003


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The beginning bilingual educationteacher has a comprehensive knowledge of the development and assessment of leteracy in L1 and the development and assessment of biliteracy
Balanced reading approach
Phonics instruction came back at the start of new millennium, and today teachers are using this approach that combines features of both phonics and whole language.
prewriting activities
are used to generate and organize ideas
Newly fluent readers
they begin to internalize the cuing or decoding system of the language and eshibit some degree of fluency
represents that final step of the process in which the documentis presentedi n final form and can be shared with an audience
Phonemic awareness
this prepares children for formal phonics instruction and is the foundation to becoming fluent readers and writers.
Emerging readers
demostrate curiosity for print and understand that print contains meaningful messages.
the teacher or peers provides feedback tothe writer
Phonics instruction
is used to guide students to recognize words based onteh way they are pronounced
Skill checklists
are used to track the student's development by noting which skills have become part of the linguistic child's repertoire
Summative evaluation
is formal assessment done after instruction or after a gradingperiod and is used to document mastery and for reporting purposes.
Graphophonemic units
sound-symbol correspondences of the language, this leads the child tonotice the individual sounds that comprise spoken words
Grade 3- 12
TELPAS consists of listening, speaking, and writing components of the TOP and the RPTE, based on ready proficiency
Texas Observation Protocol (TOP)
is a checklist designed torecord the English progress of ELLs in listening, speaking, reading, and writing
schoold records
contain valuable information teachers can use to develop an overview of their students
reflective journals
students reflect onparticular situations or content
Early readers
they begin to connect words with their written representations and recognize a number of sight words
Texas Learning Index (TLI)
is a test that produces grade equivalent scores
Foraml assessment
is conducted using formal standardized or norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests
is putting the ideas in writing
Standardized or norm-referenced testing
is used to measure a student's performance in various skils and types of content
alphabetic principle
the idea that sounds are represented by letters and letter sequences.
is done based on the input from conferencing and emphasizes theoverall content of the piece andthe clarity of ideas
refers to the initial consonant or consonant clusters of a syllable.
Kinder - grade 2
TELPAS consists of TOP only, this test uses classroom obser5vations to assess listening, speaking, prereading, and prewriting skills in English
Tejas LEE
shows proficiency in Spanish reading
peer review
involves students in the evaluation process and bulds their evaluative and interactive skills
Personal Journals
students analyze their experiences and writefor self-expression
Narrative writing
describes events or tells a story using context and often repetition to communicate ideas
Word Families
are words that have common spelling patterns is English
gives teachers and students opportunities to discuss language development
Emergent literacy
is perceived as a process that is parallel to oral development and emerges when children see adults engaging in meaningful literacy activities, like reading newspapers, writing notes, and looking at environmental print--street signs, billboards, and other printed material children see all around them.
learning log
is another type of functional journal inwhichstudetns provide a summary of the elements they have learned and analyze difficulties experienced during the learning process
End-of-curse EOC
measures the stateqide curriculum of certain high school courses to ensure that high academic standards are being met
Top-down approach
to readingthis relies on the schemata (prior knowledge) that readers bring to the text in their attempt to derive meaning from print
porfolio assessment
is used to document in a variety of ways the progress of a child as a language user
describes the process of gathering data to make intructional or programmatic decisions
State Developed Alternative Assessment (SDAA)
assesses special education students in grades 3 through 8 who are receiving instruction in the TEKS but for whom the TASK is an inappropriate measure of academic progress
is done to correct for spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics
empowers students by making them responsible and reflective of their performance in school
National curve equivalent (NCE) score
is similar to thepercentile rank but uses raw scores to produce the results
Early Writers
children at the early stages of writing are developing phonemic awareness anduse that knowledge to progress through the states of spelling development.
The bottom-up approach
to reading this is driven by a process for constructing meaning from letters, words, sentences, paragraphs, and whole texts.
Sight Words
are high-frequency words introduced to children vicually for easy recognition.
Language experience approach
is based on the assumption that students' experiences need to be used as a bridgetonew ideas and concepts.
Percentile rank
indicates thepercentage of the norm group that is at, over, or under the student's raw score
Language proficiency testing
is used to determine and document language dominance or proficiency in L1 and L2 (English).
Formative evaluation
is informal assessment done during instruction or right after instruction
process writing
is desing to guide students to write
Texas Proficiency Reading Inventory (TPRI)
is equivalent ot the Tejas LEE, covering similar language components, but is administered in English
Expository writing
provides an explanation or processes orconcepts, it uses more technical vocabulary and is less redundant and contextualized than narratives.
Environmental Print
describes forms of written communiocation available to children in thier community
standarized test scores
can offer teachers clues abou the pontential of students in their classrooms
Informal assessment
is often linked to the concepts of authentic, on-going and perfomance
grade equivalent score
measures how a child perfomred in terms of grade-level expectations.
Whole language approach
from its beginning in the 1960s this was the program of choice in public schools during the 1980s and 1990s.
Criterion-referenced tests
are used to indicate the level of mastery attained on specific standards or instructional objectives
Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System(TELPAS)
was designed to comply with the accountability system required in the federal NCLB legislation, it requires that ELLs be assessed yearly in all language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing
Big books
contain short repetitive stories that can easily be sued to teach sigh words and the sound-symbol correspondence
Newly Fluent Writers
consistently use conventional grammar, spelling, and punctuation
Rime or Phonogram
referes to the combination of vowels and consonants that follow onset
Dialogue Journals
students communicate with teachers, adults, or other students about topics of interest
is used to assess a student's use of language in various instructional settings

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