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Greece Vocabulary

Terms

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Agora
the greek marketplace and civic center. It was the heart of the social life of the polis.
Epicureans
school of philosophy founded by Epicurus of Athens. It sought to liberate people from fear of death and the supernatural by teaching that the gods took no interest in human affairs and that true happiness consisted in pleasure, which was defined as the absence of pain.
Areopagus
the governing council of Athens, originally open only to the nobility. It was named after the hill on which it met.
Heraclides of Pontus
helicentric theory, Planets revolve around the sun and not the earth
Delian league
an alliance of Greek states under the leadership of Athens that was formed in 478-477 B.C.E. to resist the persians.
Euclid's elements
foundation for courses in geometry
minoan
the bronze civilization that arose in Crete in the third and second millenia B.C.E.
Mycenaean
the bronze age civilization of mainland Greece that was centered at Mycenae
Aristarchus of Samos
asserted that the sun, along with the other fixed stars, did not move and that the Earth revolved around the sun and roated on its axis while doing so
Hipparchus of Nicea
construced a complicated geocentric model of the universe that did a good job of accounting for the movements of the sun, the moon, and the planets.
Pelopnnesian wars
the protracted struggle between Athens and Sparta to dominate Greece between 465 and Athens final defeat in 404 B.C.E.
Archimedes of Syracuse
made advances in geometry,established the theory of the lever in mechanics and invented hydrostatics
hoplite phalanx
the basic unit of Greek warfare in which infantrymen fought in close order, shield to shield, usually eight ranks deep.
Stoics
a philosophical school founded by Zeno of Citium that taught that humans could only be happy with natural law
Panhellenic
"all-greek", the sense of cultural identity that all greeks felt in common with each other.
Magna Graecia
"Great Greece" the name given by the Romans to southern Italy and Sicily because there were so many Greek colonies in region
symposion
the carefully organized drinking party that was the center of Greek aristocratic social life. It featured games, songs, poetry, and even philosophical disputation
The Iliad and the Odyssey
the epic poems by Homer about the "dark age" heroes of Greece who fought at Troy. the poems were written down in the eihth century B.C.E. after centuries of being sung by bards.
Eratoshenes of Cyrene
accurately calculated the circuference of the Earth and wrote a treatise on geography based on mathematical and physical reasoning and the reports of travelers
logos
divine reason, or fire, which according to the Stoics, was the guiding principle in nature.
Acropolis
the religious and civic center of Athens. It is the cite of Parthenon
heliocentric theory
the theory, now universally accepted, that the earth and the other planets revolve arounnd the sun. First proposed by Aristarchos

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