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Repro 4 maternal/fetal physio USMLE 2


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what mouth problem increases w/ pregnancy?
Gingival Dz
how does glucose cross the placenta?
faciliated diffusion
how do amino acids cross the placenta?
active transport
how does pregnancy effect appetite?

gastric motility?
apetite Increases

motility Decreases
how does pregnancy affect GB emptying?
emptying is delayed
how does pregnancy affect liver enzymes?
when does "morning sickness" begin?
4 - 8 weeks
what causes Ptyalism?
inability for patient to swallow normal amounts of saliva
what causes the decreased GI motility during pregnancy?
increased Progesterone
how many additional calories is allowed daily w/ pregnancy?
transit time in the stomach and small intestines increases by what percent in the second and third trimesters?
15 - 30%
during pregnancy how does the tone of the gastroesophageal sphinctor change?
it Decreases

(GERD increases)

pregnancy-related vascular swelling of the gums
what pulmonary measurement is decreased throughout pregnancy?
Carbon dioxide pressure
what pulmonary measurement is decreased in late pregnancy?
Functional Reserve Capacity
what is the maternal acid-base balance in pregnancy?
mild Respiratory Alkalosis
the Tidal volume in pregnancy increases by what percent?
30 - 40%
in a normal singleton pregnancy what is the percent increase of maternal blood volume?
in what position is maternal BP the highest?
what is the BP change in the lateral recumbent position of the inferior arm of a pregnant mother?
BP in inferior arm is higher then superior arm
pregnancy-assoc systolic ejection murmurs are heard best where?
over left upper sternal boarder
compensation for the occlusion of the inferior vena cava by the pregnant uterus is accomplished by shunting blood through what?
Paravertebral collateral circulation
what causes inferior vena cava syndrome?
compression by the gravid uterine corpus
what causes the decrease in peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy?
increased Progesterone
plasma volume begins to increase at the sixth week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum at what time?
30 - 34 weeks
what hematologic parameter is decreased in pregnancy?
what lab value related to iron is increased in pregnancy?
Total Iron-binding capacity
what CV risk increases w/ pregnancy?
what does lack of maternal iron ingestion during pregnancy result in?
Maternal Anemia
what renal functions increase during pregnancy?

Renal Plasma Flow,

during pregnancy, what is the effect of progesterone on the ureters?
there is more dilation of the right versus the left
what (3) urinary labs decrease in pregnancy?

Uric Acid,

Blood Urea Nitrogen

change in facial pigmentation during preganacy
what causes blurred vision during pregnancy?
swelling of the lens
what percent of total CO is channeled to the uterus during pregnancy?
what is the main metabolic change that occurs w/ pregnancy?
what causes the "hemorrhoids" that develop late in pregnancy?
elevated pelvic venous pressure
what is the thyroid change in pregnancy?
what is Diastasis recti?
Midline separation of the rectus muscles
how does the CO2 gradient b/t fetus and mother change in the later half of pregnancy?
how much does the BUN fall in the first trimester?
what is the urinary protein loss in pregnancy?
100 - 300 mg/24 hrs
how long after the delivery will the hair loss assoc w/ pregnancy return?
6 - 12 months
when does breast enlargement occur w/ pregnancy?
first trimester
the vision changes in pregnancy assoc. w/ increased thickness of the cornea regresses within what time?
6 - 8 weeks postpartum
why is supplemental vitamin K given to newborns?
b/c of their fetal liver immaturity in the immediate newborn
what is the change in serum bicarb levels during pregnancy?
significantly lower
the umbilical blood flow represents about what percent of the combined output of both fetal ventricles?
the fetal kidney froms urine at what rate?
400 - 1200 mL/day
in the later half of pregnancy, umbilical blood flow is what?
300 mL/mg/minute
what is the normal constant fetal heart rate?
120 - 180 bmp
maternal diastolic BP and Mean Arterial volume nadir when?
16 - 20 weeks
an increase in breast volume of what percent is common in pregnancy?
25 - 50%

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