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Journalism 100


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Definition of communication and who was it by
John T. Fiske; Social interaction through messages
Audience of Mass communication
Mass: Large / Heterogeneous / Anonymous
Differences between “face-to-face communication” and “mass communication”
Individual feedback in face-to-face is abundant and in mass is limited.

Miscommunication in face-to-face is scarce and in mass is common

Role-taking in face-to-face is common and in mass is scarce
Three levels of communication problems identified by Shannon and Weaver
Level A (Technical problems)
Level B (Semantic problems)
Level C (Effectiveness problems)
Level A (Technical problems)
Accurate transmission of the symbols
Level B (Semantic problems)
Precise convey of desired meaning by the symbols
Level C (Effectiveness problems)
Effectiveness of the received meaning on conduct
Characteristics of mass communication
1. Constraints on the message content
2. Establishment of a level of communication
3. Less experimentation, more routine
4. A few people as information sources, far greater number of people as receivers
5. Audience exercise of power through their choice of specific media content
Chronological order in the development of mass media
Newspaper (1833) – Magazine (1880) – Sound Recording (1890) – Movie (1900) – Radio (1920) –
Television (1950) – Internet (1990)
Industrial Revolution
Invention of steam engine
Formation of city
Emergence of Capitalism and Democracy
Impact of the steam engine
Mass production
Development of public transportation
Implication of formation of city on mass media
Markets for mass media
News sources
Implication of capitalism and democracy on mass media
Mass communication industries
Use of the media for advocacy
Instantaneous information access across long distances
Starting point of electronic media innovations
Inventor of printing press
Johannes Guttenberg
Inventor of telegraph
Samuel F.B. Morse
Inventor of Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of radio
Guglielmo Marconi
Inventor of television
Vladimir Kosma Zworykin and Philo T. Farnsworth
Original plans for sound recording, movie, radio, and the Internet
Sound recording - Dictation machine
Movie – Vistascope (peep-view device for use of one person at a time)
Radio – Wireless point-to-point communication device
Internet – Military communication network
The foundation of the freedom of speech guaranteed for the U.S. media
The First Amendment
Newspaper and television syndicates
content provider for newspapers and television stations
The basis for government regulations on broadcasting media
Airwaves are public commodity and therefore broadcasters are responsible for providing public services in return for their right to use the airwaves.
Top 2 companies in individual media industry
Music: Sony, Bertelsmann
Cable: Comcast, AOL Time Warner
Radio: Clear Channel, Infinity (Viacom)
Pros and cons about media conglomerates
Pros: 1.Innovative service
2.Greater value
3.Protect the freedom of press
4.Resist advertiser pressure
Cons: 1.Influence of conflicting interest on news
2.Losing public trust
3.Declining quality
4.Controlling access to advertising
16. Demise of the recorded music industry (1925-1940)
1. Technological incompatibilities
2. Fierce competition
2. Emergence of radio
3. The Great Depression
17. Radio and recorded music industries
Radio threatened recorded music industry. Later when radio was threatened by television, recorded music helped the radio industry to find a niche as a specialized music medium.
Customs in recorded music industry
Payola: Music labels bribed DJs to play their music on radio programs.
Cover music: Songs created by Black artists were adopted by White artists and gained even bigger popularity because of the superior production technology and marketing power of White recording labels.
PetrilloÂ’s war: Jame Petrillo, President of the American Federation of Musicians, demanded compensation to musicians for records being played on the radio or jukeboxes.
Pop chart: Music chart for White singers. Segregation of music charts.
Recorded music sales outlets
Direct retail stores (ex. Sam Goody, Tower Records): 45%
General retail outlets (ex. Wal-mart, Target): 40%
Music Clubs (ex. Columbia Music House): 8%
Internet-based retailers (ex., 2.4%
Functions of Movies
For producers: an avenue for expression and an opportunity to practice a complex craft
a means to wealth or simple livelihood
For audiences: a diversion and enjoyment
a lesson for their own lives.
an enriching cultural experience.
Citizen Kane
a movie about the life of newspaper tycoon Charles Kane
Movie rating systems by the Motion Picture Association of America (1968)
G: General audiences. All ages admitted.
PG: Parental guidance suggested, for mature audiences.
PG-13: Parents are strongly cautioned to give special guidance to children under 13.
R: Restricted, children under 17 must be accompanied by a parent or other adult.
Creeping cycle of desensitization
1. Our movie industry operates in a system of economic capitalism, in which making profits is a major and highly approved goal.
2. Making profit with a movie requires keeping costs down and also maximizing the audiences who pay in one form or another to see the film. Sex, violence, and vulgarity attract audiences.
3. The First Amendment offer few restraints on what nay medium can present to the public. This is largely left to audience tastes that define what people will or will not tolerate and pay to see.
4. The young – a large proportion of the movie audience – care little for conservative tastes. They seek pleasure and excitement via exposure to sexual depictions, vulgarities, and violence. The number of opposing critics is small.
5. Therefore, moviemakers, seeking maximum profits, constantly increase their depictions of sex, violence, and vulgarity. They stop only if criticism is strong, and resume after the public becomes accustomed to the new standard.
Charged audiences five cents for the admission
2. Highly popular among immigrants living in big cities.
3. Had near universal appeal with stereotypical plots, overdramatized acting, and slapstick humor.
4. Played silent movies.
Clear Channel
1. Owns more than 1000 radio stations in the U.S.
2. Owns music concert production companies
3. Promote “Kiss FM” as a brand name
4. Together with the Infinity, accounts for more than 40% of revenues in the whole radio industry in the U.S.
Radio technologies and their implications
Audion Vacuum Tube: Home radio sets
Frequency Modulation: Superior sound quality
Transistor: Portable radios
Necessary conditions for radio to be a mass medium
Small enough receivers to be used in homes.
Affordable receiver price
Clear signal reception
Broadcast stations to send programs
A radio program that vividly described an invasion of the Earth by aliens, resulting in mass panic among the listeners on Halloween Eve of 1938
War of the Worlds
Rating and Share
Rating: % of homes tuned to a program at the time of measure
Share: % of homes tuned to a program among homes actually using TV sets at the time of measure
Impact of 1996 Telecommunications Act on cable industry
Allow a telephone company, a long distance carrier, and a cable company to enter one anotherÂ’s market. Also allowed local television or radio station owners and newspaper owners to run a cable company in the same local market.
1972 FCC regulations on the cable industry
Must-Carry Rule
Syndication Exclusivity Rule
Access Channel
Leased Channel
Technologies that are developed to help viewers record network programs and watch them later. The foremost concern with these technologies was the possibility that television viewers might skip advertisements when they watch pre-recorded television programs.
Current American broadcast television
1. Production 1) Independent programs
2) Network programs
2. Distribution 1) Affiliates
2) Syndicates
3. Local stations 1) Owned & Operated stations
2) Affiliated stations
Media effect
Scope: individuals, institutions, and society as a whole
Level: exposure, perception, attitudes, and behaviors
Definition: Generalized beliefs about a group that are widely held within a particular culture. Stereotyping can
occur through either exclusion or inclusion of certain groups of people from media contents
Typical stereotyped groups of people: Women, Elderly, Racial / Ethnic minorities
Effects: Limit personal growth / Depersonalize / Justify unfair conditions in society / Limit social interaction
Two determinants of selective exposure
Personal preference: demographic and psychographic difference
Personal need: mood management (relaxation or stimulation)
38. Theories on the effects of violent media contents
Fright reaction

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