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Marine Biology Module #4

Terms

undefined, object
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parasitism
a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
scyphozoa
a class that is in phylum cnidaria which contains the larger jellyfishes
regeneration
asexual reproduction when a portion of a sponge's body is broken off and it can grow into a separate sponge indentical to the original one
nematocysts
unique stinging structures that can paralyze or kill prey
invertabrate
animals that do not possess a backbone
central nervous system
coordinates the movements of the well developed muscles
spongin
a web-like skeleton of elastic protein fibers
apically
through the top
tapeworm
parasites, that have long bodies made up of repeated units
zooxanthellae
symbiotic dinoflagellates that live within the tissues of cnidarians
platyhelminthes
the phylum that contains flatworms
hydrozoa
a class that is in phylum cnidaria which contains the portuguese man-o-war
nemertea
the phylum composed of ribbon worms
anthozoa
a class that is in phylum cndaria which contains coral polyps and lots more
collar cell
a cell that has a flagellum that moves to create currents of water which flow into the sponge
planula
producing eggs and sperm that result in a free-swimming larva stage
radial symmetry
a body form in which any longitudinal cut (along the length) through the organism's central axis results in identical halves
nerve cells
specialized cells that allow some species to identify each other and to coordinate the "pulsing" of medusoid forms for orientation in the water column
ventral
referring to the bottom (or belly) surface of an animal
laterally
from the sides
mesoglea
a jelly-like substance between the inner and outer layer of cells in a cnidarian
gastrovascular cavity
the cavity inside a cnidarian's body where food is digested
gemmule
a group of cells surrounded by a shell made of spicules
turbellaria
the class containing turbellarians, flatworms, which are mainly free-swimming carnivores
spherical symmetry
a body form in which any cut through the organism's center results in identical halves
trematoda
a class containing over 6,000 species of flatworms
amoebocytes
cells within a sponge that produce its skeletal structure, perform digestion, and repair cell damage
porifera
the phylum that contains sponges
larva
an immature stage of an animal that appears different from the adult stage
lasso cells
when these cells come into contact with the comb jelly's prey, these cells burst open releasing sticky threads that latch onto the hapless organism
aboral side
the side opposite the mouth
commensalism
a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed or benefited
intestine
a bag like structure that has only one opening through which food enters and wastes are expelled
oral side
the side that has the mouth
leucon
a body type that is like the sycon type only the folded bag is folded again on itself creating an even greater surface area
amphiblastula
flagellated larva formed when male and female gametes join
the forming of a coral reef
after anthozoans bud each polyp remains attached to one another which in turn forms a coral reef
spicules
the form of support for larger and more complex sponges
vertabrate
animals that possess a backbone
pore cells
cells that allow water to move into the animal
sycon
a body type that is like the ascon except there is a slight folding of the sack creating a greater surface area
tentacles
the part of the body that contains nematocysts
ctenophora
the phylum containing radially symmetric, gelatinous bodied marine organisms, commonly called comb jellies
cnidaria
the phylum containing jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones
bilateral symmetry
a body form in which only one longitudinal cut through the organism's center results in identical halves
ascon
a body type that is basically like a sack filled with holes
mutualism
a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where both benefit from the association
metamorphosis
a complete morphological change from larval to adult form
dorsal
referring to the top (or back) surface of an animal
budding
when an idividual develops a small outgrowth on its body and it grows for awhile and is then pinched off so it is separate from its parent
medusa
a free-swimming cnidarian stage, appearing bell-like or umbrella-like
nematoda
the phylum composed of roundworms
polyp
an attached cnidarian stage, appearing sac-like or barrel-like
flukes
a trematode that engages in parasitism feeding of the tissues of other organisms
septa
found in the gastrovascular cavity these are vertical partitions that provide greater surface area for digestion
aggregation
the fragments of a sponge that can come back together and reorganize when broken up into tiny bits
coelenterates
the name of an organism that contains a coel, or a large body cavity
host
the organism that parasites live and feed on
substrate
the "holdfast" which anchors the sponge

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