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Biology midterm

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
coarse adjustment
low power
compound scope
same as light microscope, has more than one lens
fine adjustment
used on high power
taxonomy
study of technique of classification
decomposers
recycle nutrients from dead material
dependent variable
response
independent variable
change
biochemistry
study of the chemistry of living matter
protons
positively charged, located in nucleus
polarity
uneven distribution of electrons, water is attracted to substances
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
herbivores
eat plants
osmosis
diffusion of water
facilitated diffusion
diffusion with use of proteins - no ATP needed
stereoscope
microscope used for dissection
cytology
study of cells
pH table
14-6, base; 6-1, acid; 7, neutral
lock and key hypothesis
enyzmes have an active site, which attaches to the substrate and changes it
aerobic
uses oxygen
pyramid of numbers
relative number of individual organisms at each level
fermentation
process in which alcohol or lactic acid and carbon dioxide are made, located in cytoplasm
nuclear envelope
protects nucleus
isotopes
element that contains same number of proteins and electrons, but different number of neutrons
stage
in microscope, where you put the slide
parasitism
symbiotic relationship, one benefits, other is harmed
carnivores
eat other animals
nucleus
contains DNA, controls cell
marine biology
the study of oceanic plants and animals
diaphragm
regulates light
primary productivity
the rate at which organic matter can be produced by plants (producers)
competitive exclusion principle
no two species can occupy the same niche at the same time
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one benefits, other neither harmed nor benefited
anatomy
study of parts of plants and animals
rainforest biome
lots of rain, unique plants and animals
active transport
diffusion that requires ATP
ribosomes
makes proteins/enzymes
cell membrane
semi-permeable, protects cell
covalent bond
sharing of electrons between atoms
botany
study of plants
Benedict's solution
tests for simple sugar; light blue, yellow orange when simple sugar
biotic factors
living factors
density independent factors
cannot be controlled (natural disaster, climate change)
population
group of same species in an area
diffusion
molecules move from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
acid
any substance that produces hydronium ions in water
immunology
study of immunity
grasslands biome
wolf, prairie chicken, temperate, rainfall
community
group of populations in an area
tundra biome
permafrost, caribous, strong winds
glucose
simple sugar, carbohydrate
producers
autotrophs
carbon-14
dates fossils and rocks
nucleic acids
organic compound, makes up DNA
total magnification
eyepiece x low power
abiotic factors
non-living factors
nucleolus
in nucleus, makes ribosomes
physiology
the study of the functions of parts of the body
qualitative data
descriptive
proteins
composed of amino acids, build up muscle; enyzmes
ionic bond
donates electrons to form charged atom - ion
carbohydrates
C, H, O - main source of readily available energy
genetics
study of hereditary
cytoskeleton
maintains shape of cell
zoology
study of animals
disaccharides
lactose, sucrose
desert biome
hot and dry during day, cold at night; scorpions, cactus, coyote
primary succession
begins in a place without soil
polysaccharides
many sugars combined: starch, glycogen, cellulose
mitochondria
generates ATP, cell respiration
anaerobic
does not use oxygen
eukaryotic cell
nucleus, membrane bound organelles, large and complex
Iodine solution
tests for starch; red to black
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
transports proteins
microbiology
the study of microscopic organisms
base
any substance that produces hydroxide in water
stimuli
causes a response
lipids
composed of glycerol and fatty acid; good cholesterol, support organs, stores energy, makes up cell membranes, hormones
niche
ecological role of organism
rough endoplasmic reticulum
stores ribosomes
Redi's experiment
disproved spontaneous generation: meat in jars, with one covered and one not; the covered one has no maggots, the non-covered one does
exponential growth
needs unlimited resources (J curve)
Pasteur's experiment
disproved spontaneous generation; boiled broth; when the handle was broken off it was soon teeming with microorganisms
Biuret's solution
tests for protein; blue to purple
habitat fragmentation
break up habitats
phenol red
tests for acid or base; red to yellow if acid, red to purple is base
entomology
the study of insects
cell wall
made of cellulose, protects in plant cells
density dependent factors
directly dependent on population size (disease, famine, competition, war)
cell specialization
"form follows function" - the shape of a cell is directly related to its job
semipermeable
membrane, lets some things in, not others
logistic growth
demographic transition (S curve)
autotrophs
producers, perform photosynthesis
energy pyramid
amount of energy available at each trophic level
cell theory
1. all living things composed of cells, 2. cell is basic unit of function and structure, 3. cells come from other living cells
coliform bacteria
when phecal matter is found in water
temperate forest biome
four seasons, oak and maple trees, deer
heterotrophs
need to obtain food from other living things
prokaryotic cell
no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, small and simple
biological magnification
pollutant is soluble in fat, you ingest it and it goes up the food chain, becoming more concentrated as it goes up
tropical savanna biome
lion, gazelle, eucalyptus, long wet season and a dry season
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose
pathology
the science of diseases
fatty acids
part of lipids - saturated and unsaturated
point source
where pollution originates
golgi body
stores proteins
neutrons
no charge in an atom, located in the nucleus
centriole
aids in cell division
aquifers
piece of land that sponges up water, underground source of drinking water
cell organization
specialized cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism
ocular lens
eyepiece
enzymes
proteins, speed up chemical reactions
biomass pyramid
amount of organic matter at each level
taiga/coniferous forest biome
conifers, elk, cold/temperate, moose
lysosomes
get rid of waste
electrons
negatively charged, on the shell
ichthyology
study of fish
invasive species
non-native to an area, excessive growth, no natural predators
ozone layer
depleted, has big holes, allowing more rays in
secondary succession
begins in a place with soil that once was home of organisms
omnivores
eat plants and animals
quantitative data
numbers and data
photosynthesis
makes oxygen and sugar, in the chloroplasts
food chain
one way flow of energy

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